How are you? okay?

I’m better thank you.

I did it yesterday. Lo hice ayer

Jason did his homework last night. J. hizo sus deberes anoche

Pepe’s uncle did an English course. El tío de Pepe hizo un curso de inglés

We did the dishes yesterday. Lavamos los platos ayer

We did the work on Friday. Hicimos el trabajo el viernes

Dan’s dad did it. El papa de Dad lo hizo

I did something yesterday. Hice algo ayer

The workers did their job. Los trabajadores hicieron su trabajo

I did my best. Lo hice lo mejor que pude


Now is about time to test you on your irregular verb. Good, okay let’s go for it:


They won the bet but they didn’t win the contest. Ganaron la apuesta pero no ganaron el concurso


I drove the car but I didn’t drive the tractor. Conduje el coche pero no conduje el tractor

The company grew but it didn’t grow quickly. La empresa creció pero no creció rápidamente

I read the letter but I didn’t read the report. Leí la carta pero no leí el informe

I sold the car but I didn’t sell the house. Vendí el coche pero no vendí la casa

I sent the letter but I didn’t send the pictures. Envié la carta pero no envié las fotos

The jewels: Las joyas

I taught the alphabet but I didn’t teach the numbers. Enseñé el alfabeto pero no enseñé los números


I forgot the book but I didn’t forget the papers. Olvidé el libro pero no olvidé los papeles

I heard the end but I didn’t hear the beginning. Oí el final pero no oí el principio

I bought the food but I didn’t buy the drinks. Compré la comida pero no compré las bebidas

I chose the red one but I didn’t choose the blue one. Elegí el rojo pero no elegí el azul.

I flew to Rome but I didn’t fly to Paris. Volé a Roma pero no volé a París

I broke the glass but I didn’t break the bottle. Rompí el vaso pero no rompí la botella


I’m on the mend. I feel a lot better a bit thank you of course to David, for doing the last two disks, when I was in my dead bed.

We’re gonna carry on reviewing some irregular verbs. This time focusing on participles very very easy and, but it is important keep practicing these:  


I’ve fallen on snow but I’ve never fallen on sand. Me he caído en la nieve pero nunca me he caído en la arena.


I’ve swum in a lake but I’ve never swum in a fjord. He nadado en un lago pero nunca he nadado en un fiordo.


Peter’s eaten swordfish but he’s never eaten whale. Pedro ha comido pez espada pero nunca ha comido ballena.


They’ve sung in German but they’ve never sung in Hungarian. Han cantado en alemán pero nunca han cantado en Húngaro.


She’s never run a marathon but she has run a half marathon. Nunca ha corrido un maratón pero sí ha corrido un medio maratón


They’ve sung in German but they’ve never sung in Hungarian


They’ve never flown to the States but they have flown to Mexico. Nunca han volado a E.U. pero sí han volado a México.

Éste uso del auxiliar sin la contracción es parecido al “Sí” en español: Pero sí han volado a.

But they have flown to.


He’s never broken his leg but he has broken his arm. Nunca se ha roto la pierna pero sí se ha roto el bazo.


I’ve never drunk ewe’s milk but I have goat’s milk. Nunca he bebido leche de oveja pero sí he bebido leche de cabra


They’ve never spoken in person but they have spoken by phone. Nunca han hablado en persona pero sí han hablado por teléfono


Ski boot prices have risen in January before but they’ve never risen in July. Los precios de las botas de esquí han subido antes en enero pero nunca han



How are you today? Are you alright? You’re on top of the world! What does that mean?

I’m on top of the world.

I went to the bank. I went to the supermarket.

I went home. I went there.

Yesterday I went to the cinema or I went to the cinema yesterday.

We went to France last year.

Henry went to see his girlfriend at the weekend

My teacher went to Brazil to learn Portuguese.

Clara went to the bank to talk to the manager.


Okay, we’re gonna look at five verbs; to eat, to drive, to fly, to give, to hear.

You know all them, but it’s really important to get the grips with the mechanics of the language to be able to use them, in context effectible without stumbling, without thinking about what are you saying, okay let’s go really quickly.

The policeman heard the shouts.

We’ve driven two hundred kilometers so far.

The bird flew into the window.

“News” is uncountable; una noticia “some news” o “a piece of news”

Have our employees heard the news?

Has she driven the truck?


Okay, we’re gonna look at five irregular verbs now, and we gonna go really fast.

I’ve fought over this matter with my boss many times.

I held the ladder for her.

I meant it was important.

I thought you would know the answer.

I’ve often thought it would be a good idea. A menudo…

I forgot to tell you about it yesterday.

I meant what I said.

I’ve never fought with my boss.

Sandra hasn’t forgotten the appointment. 

I’ve never held a ladder.

I didn’t think about the guidelines.

By the way we say to think about something, and not to think in something, okay? For the example in the interrogative now:

Have you ever thought about retiring?

Did you hold the meeting last week?

Did you mean what you said?

Did you cat and dog fight a lot?

Has she forgotten how important this investment is?

Have they ever fought over politics?


To drink -To choose -To leave -To lose -To meet


Audience chose the wrong answer. …la respuesta incorrecta

I left the room in silence. Salí

The boss has chosen the right candidate. correcto.

I lost three kilos last month.

You met my wife at the conference.

All the stuff left the building.

I chose to ignore his comment. Prefiero…

The cat has drunk all the milk.

The board didn´t choose to reduce salaries. La junta…

I haven’t lost the papers I promise.

In literal sense: No he perdido los papeles.

I haven't gone crazy!

In figurative sense: No he perdido los papeles.

I haven’t lost the plots, I promise.

Has Miguel chosen a suit yet?

Did you often lose your keys?

Have you met my sister-in-law?

Have your guests left yet? ¿Se han marchado ya, tus invitados?


Irregular verbs in the following way:

Have – had – had

Forget – Forgot – Forgotten.

Think – Thought – Thought


Last week I thought you were coming. …que vendrías.


To burn: Quemar

To draw: Dibujar

To misunderstand: Malentender

To ride; Montar

To stink which means “apestar”.


After the party the whole flat stank of beer and smoke.

Be careful or you burnt the toast.

The Artist has drawn a wonderful portrait of my dog.

It’s easy to misunderstand their intentions.

When I was in Indian I rode in elephant.

Open the window, the kitchen stinks of eggs.

Miguel burnt all the photos he had of her.

Luckily, we didn’t burn all the wood. Afortunadamente…

I didn’t draw that insulting picture of our boss. He did! 

Don’t misunderstand me, I’m only telling you the truth. 

They haven’t burn all the coal yet.

My girlfriend hasn’t ridden a bike for years.

His breath doesn’t stink now he goes to the dentist regularly.

Did the factory stink of chemicals? ¿Apestaba la fábrica a productos químicos?

Two children, three children, and the plural; one child.

Did the murderer burn all evidences? pruebas

Could you ride a horse when you were five year old?

Is it me, or do my clothes stink of fast food?


Okay, we’re going to look at three more verbs: To feel, to understand and to ride.

We pronouns the word “and a” like the name “ana”.

“A week and a half ago” when we’re speaking fast; a week and a half ago, okay?

A week and a half ago you felt better.

A week and a half ago you understood our stance. …postura

A week and a half ago I wrote an essay. …un ensayo

A week and a half ago we felt disappointed. …decepcionado

A week and a half ago he wrote to the boss.

A week and a half ago you felt unhappy.


Let’s look at five more verbs then:

To throw-threw-thrown: Lanzar, arrojar o tirar.

To withdraw-withdrew-withdrawn: Sacar dinero o retirar

To bleed-bled-bled: Sangrar

To catch-caught-caught: Coger

To sweep-swept-swept: Barrer


Let’s look at some examples then, in the affirmative.

The protesters threw stones at the police.

I have to withdraw some money before we get to the restaurant.

With all this dust you have to sweep the floor nearly every day.

I can’t believe she threw the cat down the stairs.

I’m sure he withdrew more Money than that.

Her gums used to bleed until she bought a special mouthwash.


Some examples now then, in the negative:

The wound didn’t bleed but it really hurt. La herida…dolía de verdad

They caught a taxi.

The owner of the bar hasn’t swept the floor since yesterday.

Juan didn’t throw the bottle but he threw a can of beer.

I haven’t withdrawn the Money yet, I’ll do it tomorrow.


Some examples now in the interrogative:

How many cats have you thrown down the stairs?

Has Britain withdrawn its troops from Iraq? ¿Ha retirado G.B. las tropas de..?

Did the wound bleed?


We’re going to look at, five more verbs now starting with:

To bite which means; morder

To freeze

To fled: Huir

To Read and to write.

Let’s start with the first one.

I’ve read fourteen books so far this year whereas last year I only read three.

He leído catorce libros en lo que va de año, mientras que el año pasado solo leí tres


I read the introduction but I haven’t read the novel yet.

I froze the peas but I haven’t frozen the courgettes yet.

I bit my tongue but I didn’t bite my lip.

Selfish: Egoísta

Shellfish: Marisco:

The refugees fled their country.

I haven’t read the newspaper today.

I wrote a long article about the matter.

He nearly froze to death. Casi muere por congelación.

My car engine froze. El motor de mi auto se congeló.

Why haven’t you read it?

The dog bit the cat which turned and fled. …se volvió y huyó.

I froze the beer by mistake. sin querer.

John wrote it and James read it.

He fled the country. Huyó del país

The horse bit my hand.


Okay, we’re going to look at three more irregular verbs, and we’re going to do them to death:

To bring-brought-brought: Traer

To become-became-become: Convetirse, ponerse; I became nervous when… Llegar a ser,


To build-built-built: Construir

Okay, we’ll start with that novel little warm up exercise then, in which we’ll do the following:


The other day Adam brought his wife to the tennis club

The other day Janet became the new human resources manager

The other day I built a tree house for our daughters.

The other day James and Sarah brought us a lovely bottle of white burgundy


To hide – hid - hidden: Ocultar, esconder

To broadcast – broadcast - broadcast: Emitir

To kneel – knelt - knelt: Arrodillarse

To shine – shone - shone: Brillar

To sink – sank - sunk: Hundirse  


He’s always shone at maths: To shine at something; brillar en algo.

The Titanic sank in 1912.

The boat I built has sunk five times this year.

I lost two pairs of sunglasses, one in the river Thames, and one in the river Seine in Paris

To propose: Pedir la mano a alguien.

Coward: Cobarde


To fly – flew - flown; flew, flew, flew, flu “como la gripe”

To swim – swam - swum: Nadar

The expression; when I was at school: In English we can’t say; when was in the school.


To Shrink – Shrank - Shrunk; which means: Encojerse.

To put – put - put: Poner o meter.

To bring – brought - brought: Traer.

To hang – hung - hung: Colgar.

To win – won - won: Ganar.


My red jumper shrunk in the wash. Mi jersey rojo encogió al lavarse.

Estantería: One self, two selves.

I hung my coat on the hook. Colgué mi abrigo en la percha.

Tender la ropa: To hung out of clothes.

Mine shrank in the wash last week. El mío encogió en el lavado de la semana pasada.

I put the wrong sitting. Puse la función equivocada.

El año pasado: Last year. When you say; the last year “significa el último año que”

The last year I saw him was 1999, for example.

Have your clothes ever shrunk in the wash?


We’re going to look at three more verbs, now.

To lose: Perder

To find: Encontrar

To deal: Tratar.

To do a trip or to make a trip? To make a trip.


In 1999 I dealt with the company chairman.

In 1999 I found a job.

In 1999 he lost his job.


To look up or to look up in: buscar en el diccionario.

In 1999 our company dealt with John’s company.

In 1999 you dealt with my secretary. En 1999 trataste con mi secretaria.


Let’s look now at five verbs, starting with:

To buy – bought – bought: Comprar

To dream - dreamt (dreamed) - dreamt (dreamed): Soñar

To hit – hit – hit: Golpear

To sing – sang – sung: Cantar

To tread (on) – trod – trodden: Pisar


Let’s go then:

In the sales: En rebajas.

They’ve just bought a new house. Acaban de comprarse

Have you ever hit your head on a lamp? ¿ Alguna vez…contra una lámpara?

Soñar con alguien: To dream of someone.

They dreamt of seeing their homeland again. Soñaron con volver a ver su patria.

You trod on my foot.

You’ve trodden on my food three times today.

Has an elephant ever trodden on your foot?

The singer sang a very sad song about his childhood.

I dreamt I hit my nose on a door. Me golpee la nariz contra…

Well, I dreamt I was singing in the theatre.

I trod on all ants that were on the floor.

Has an ant ever trodden on you?

I’ve sung better that I sang tonight.

The manager hit his desk with his fist.

I’ve bought more clothes this year than I bought last year. El año pasado


Okay, we’re going to look at three more verbs now then, starting with the verb:

To win – won - won: Ganar

To beat – beat - beaten: Ganar (a alguien); we aleays beat someone, we can’t never win someone; you can win something, win a match, you can win a championship, but you can’t win someone. And finally:

To cost – cost – cost: Costar

Yesterday I beat you.

A loaf of bread: Una barra de pan.


Okay, we’re gonna look at five more verbs, starting with:

To blow –To blow out:

To blow means; soplar.

To blow out; apagar soplando.

To blow – blew and blown; blow – blew – blown.

To dig – dug – dug. Cavar

To grind; it’s a verb for: Moler. Grind - ground – ground;

To shoot means; disparar o asesinar con arma de fuego: Shoot – shot – shot

To ring – rang – rung. Llamar

Okay let’s go then with some examples:

Stella ground the coffee.

He shut the door and shot in the air. Él cerró la puerta y disparó al aire.

I blew out the candle or I don’t know who blew the candle out.

Did you dig the hole?

He was digging a hole the whole day. …el día entero. “Hole y whole, homónimas”

Have you rung the insurance company yet?

Yes, I rang them a few minutes ago.

The phone never rings, but it rang three times yesterday.

He ground the almonds on the ground.

Did the miller grind as much flour last year as he ground the year before?


Let’s look at three more verbs then; de verb to teach, the verb to catch and the verb to spend.

To teach – taught – taught: Enseñar.

To catch – caught – caught: Coger, agarrar o atrapar.  

To spend – spent – spent: Gastar o pasar tiempo.

I taught:

Forget the “gh” the “gh” is simply there to annoy, this isn’t do anything. <tort> cómo tortilla.

Lately and not ultimately; ultimately means “en última instancia” is a false friend also. Lately; últimamente.

When we use “Lately” of course we also use “The present perfect”

Lately we’ve caught the metro, just as you doing in Spanish.

Lately they’ve taught us

Let’s look at some more examples now, and alternated between “in the ninety’s” and “in this decade”. And of course when we’re talking about “the ninety’s” we have to use “the past simple” however when we’re talking about “this decade” we need to use the present perfect, why? Because this decade hasn’t finished yet, okay? So it’s in open or incomplete time period. In this decade.

A multinational.


So okay, we’re going to look at five more verbs in all the different forms, the first verb is “To break”, the second verb is “to learn” okay now, “learn” can be regular and can ending “ed” in the past and its participle of course, or it can ending e “t”. In British English we tend to write it with a “t” whereas in American English they write “ed”. It doesn’t any matter. We’re gonna look at irregular version of “it” today.

The next verb “overcome; superar” and it works in exactly the same ways the verb “to come”:

Overcome – Overcame – Overcome.

Okay, the next one is: To shed – shed - shed; derramar, despojarse; for example; a snake can shed its skin.

And the final one; a synonym of “to close”: To shut which means “cerrar”, good; slight close!

To shut – shut – shut.

The shop shut early.

I learnt a lot

The cherry tree shed its leaves in late November. …tira sus hojas a finales de noviembre.

He broke all his teeth in a road accident.

Have you learnt your lines yet? ¿Te has aprendido tu papel ya?

Un cobertizo: “A shed” just like the verb “to shed”

I shed a few tears or I shed a tear or two in the shed.

I’ve learnt lot of things or I’ve learnt loads of things.

Stewart overcame his shyness and asked Deidre for a dance.

She learnt the role in a night. Aprendió el papel por la noche.


Three verbs which some time of course confusing amount of Spaniards: Shut, shouted and shoot which past of course is shot.

He shut the door, shouted and shot the cowboy.

Ian broke the British record.

The Trappist monks in that monastery have never broken their vow of silence.

“Vow of silence” and “vote of confidence”.


The actress soon overcame his nerves.

He broke his finger when he shut it in the door.

Have you ever shut your finger in a door? Yes. Me too! It’s unbeliever the pain for it.


Three more verbs then, starting with:

To take – took – taken: Tomar, llevar.

To buy – bought – bought: Comprar

To see – saw – seen: Ver

This time in conjunction with the expression “The week before last” which means; la semana antepasada.


The week before last I bought a car.

The week before last she saw the film you directed.

The week before last you took a taxi.

The week before last he bought a cake.

The week before last they saw the baby.


Let’s look at five more verbs, starting with:

To cling – clung – clung: Agarrarse

To pay – paid – paid: Pagar

To seek – sought - sought: Buscar, consultar

To sleep – slept - slept: Dormir

To begin – began - begun: Comenzar


The cat clung to the branch until the firemen or fire brigade came.

Consulté a mi medico: To seek help from.

I sought help from my doctor. <Se pronuncia sort>

El pasado de “cling; clung”

Consulté con mi abogado: Aquí en vez de decir “to seek help” diría “To seek advice”.

“To seek” doesn’t require of the article.


Have you ever slept on a bench in a park?

He sought financing from his millionaire uncle.

My son began the school the day before yesterday.

I clung to a lamp post during the worst of the storm. Me agarré a una farola…

I slept like a log. Dormí cómo un tronco. “Log” that it means “Leño”


Let’s look at three more verbs then and just work on, work on, work on them, until you become extremely agile flicking from using one tense to another.

The verbs we’re to look at are:

To get which means; conseguir, obtener: To get – got - got/gotten

To sing: Cantar. To sing – sang - sung

To wear: Llevar puesto. To wear – wore - worn

Okay, we start with a normal little worm up exercise, using very basic examples:

Lately I’ve got or lately I’ve gotten, as they say in the US.

Lately she’s sung

Yesterday we wore.

Lately we’ve worn


Now, we gonna look at some more complex examples always in the context of the following expression; early last year: Early last year means; a comienzos del año pasado.

Early last year they all got a pay rise.

Early last year the singer sang a song.

Early last year we got a loan from the bank.

Early last year our neighbour sang live on TV.


Let’s look at five more verbs then, this time starting with the verb “to beat” which means; golpear, ganarle a alguien: To beat – beat - beaten

To become – became - become: Convertirse en, ponerse

To feed – fed - fed: Alimentar

To show – showed - showen: Mostrar, enseñar

To lend – lent - lent: Prestar

Okay, let’s go then:

Miniatures: Miniaturas

To pay for a taxi: Para pagar el taxi.

Have you ever beaten your wife at tennis?

I lent my sister my bike. Dejé mi bicicleta a mi hermana

I lent it to her yesterday. Se lo dejé anteayer.

Have you shown them your tattoo?

Yes, I showed it to them yesterday.

I fed the dog at seven o’clock last night. De la tarde de ayer

To feed: El verbo para alimentar a animales.

To breastfeed: Amamantar a un bebé.


Did Valencia beat Barcelona last year?

Have you ever fed a baby goat? Chivo

I lent my book to Liam but I didn’t lend it to James.

I’ve showed my book to Sarah but I’ve never shown it to Kerry.

We’ve become very good friends recently.

He became embarrassed when I asked him that question. Se puso violento cuando le hice esa pregunta.


Let’s look at three more verbs then, starting with:

To let – let – let: Dejar, permitir.

To hear – heard – heard: oir

To fight – fought – fought: Pelear, luchar

Okay, let’s look at some examples then:

Let me go, let him come.

Lately I’ve let him take control.

Let him go, let him run, let him work.

Yesterday we let you go home early.

Lately they’ve heard me talk to myself. …hablar solo

Every day he hears his boss shouting.


Let’s look at some more examples now, then within the context of the following time expression which is: “There was a time when” which means; hubo una época en que…


There was a time when we fought day and night.

There was a time when we heard the neighbours fighting.

There was a time when you let me use your car.

There was a time when you fought for your rights. His rights and his law degree

There was a time when we fought for what we believed.


Let’s look at five more verbs then, starting with the verb “to fit” which means; caber, sentar bien. To fit – fit – fit or to fitted

To grow – grew – grown: Crecer, cultivar

To overhear – overheard – overheard: Oir por casualidad

To lead – led – led: Encabezar, guiar

To rise – rose – risen: Subir, levantarse

I must have put on weight. Debo haver ganado peso

He’s grown so much since time I last saw him!

¡Ha crecido mucho desde la última vez que le vi!


Have you ever led troops into a battle? Has guiado...a una…?

Sales figures have risen in the last quarter. In the last trimester

The sun rose at 6 a.m. this morning.

As it happens, I overheard that they were saying about you.

Da la casualidad que por casualidad…


Luckily, I didn’t rise to the bait. No mordí el cebo

Poor Ignatius, he tried to get into the back of my car, but he couldn’t fit. …pero no cupo.

If he had eaten more vegetables, he would have grown in the right direction


When I was young I led a team of explorers to the North Pole.

I tried to pack a razor, but it didn’t fit into my backpack.

Have you ever grown turnips? Navos


Let’s look at three more verbs then, starting with the verb “to sleep”

To sleep – slept – slept: Dormir

To shut – shut – shut: Cerrar

To sit – sat – sat: Sentarse

We'll start then as we always do, looking at some very, very basic examples of these three verbs, to increase a general ability and flicking from one verb to the other.

Every night I sleep.

This week you’ve slept.

Every day he shuts.

Today I’ve sat.


Using the expression at the beginning at the week which means; al principio de la semana.

At the beginning of the week he shut the shop.

At the beginning of the week they slept together.

At the beginning of the week she shut the door in my face.

At the beginning of the week you slept at the other hotel.

At the beginning of the week I sat next to you on the sofa.

At the beginning of the week you shut the wardrobe.

At the beginning of the week you sat close to the fan. …cerca del ventilador

At the beginning of the week I slept with the window open.


Let’s look at five more verbs then. Today we’re gonna start with the verb “to find”.

To find – found – found: Encontrar

To forgive – forgave – forgiven: Perdonar

To upset - upset – upset: Disgustar u ofendido. The verb “to upset” never changes, okay?

I upset you every day. Yesterday I upset you too and now up I’ve upset you about five times this week

To run – ran – run: Correr

To mistake – mistook – mistaken: Confundir


In the bin: En la papelera

She’s never run a marathon.

To mistake means “confundir” but when you “confundes a una persona con otra”.

Have you ever mistaken someone for somebody else? “To mistake” doesn’t mean “cometer un error”: Which is; how do you say that? To make a mistake “como sustantivo”. “To mistake” es confundir a alguien con otra persona. For” es imprescindible con este verbo.


I mistook you for my old neighbour.

I’ve never found anything valuable in my garden.

Have you ever found anything valuable in a taxi?

I found ten euros last week but I haven’t found anything this week.

He made a mistake but I forgave him

They ran faster than they’d ever run before.

I’d never mistake you for your twin brother. I would never mistake you for…


Okay, let’s look at three more verbs, starting with the verb “to throw” which means “tirar”:

To throw – threw – thrown: Tirar

To drive – drove – driven: Conducir o ir en coche

To ring – rang – rung: Llamar

Lately I’ve rung.

Lately he’s rung.

Lately he’s thrown

This evening; que significa esta tarde a partir de las 18:00

Did you ring Yalda yesterday evening?

Have you rung Len yet this evening?

To drive someone home:

I’ll drive you home.


Okay, let’s look at five more verbs then, starting with the verb “to steal” which means; robar

To Steal – stole – stolen: Robar

To swear – swore – sworn: Jurar

To light – lit – lit: Encender

To know – knew – known: Saber

To creep – crept – crept: Arrastrarse, deslizarse, sigilosamente

Pickpocket: Carterista.

Purse: Monedero.

The pickpocket stole Jane’s purse without her realising. El carterista…

Pam swore loudly when she hit her head on the extractor fan hood.

Parn maldeció a gritos cuando se dio con la cabeza con la campana extractor


The thief crept into the building. Entró sigilosamente

I crept under the gate in order to get into the garden.

Me arrastré debajo de la verja con el fin de entrar en el jardín.


Have you ever crept along a motorway on all fours? Has ido…a 4 patas por…

“To creep on all fours” o “to crawl on all fours” avanzar a 4 patas


I’ve never lit a cigarette at a petrol station. …gasolinera

The Mayor has never sworn in public. …dicho una palabrota en publico.

I’ve never stolen anything in my life.

My grandmother knew a great cure for hangovers.

We’ve never lit a fire in May before. Nunca antes hemos encendido la…

I could have sworn he swore! Juraría que él dijo una palabrota

I’ve never known anyone like you! …a nadie cómo tú!

Someone’s just stolen my grandfather’s watch. Alguien me acaba de robar…

Someone’s just stolen my grandfather’s clock

As we were late we crept into the church and sat at the back.

Como llegamos tarde, entramos sigilosamente y nos pusimos detrás.


Let’s look at three more verbs then, and just work and work on, work on them. First in the most basic it context and then in more complex sentences, okay? The three verbs we’re going to look at then are:

To choose – chose – chosen:  Elegir o escoger

To drink – drank – drunk: Beber

To lend – lent – lent:  Prestar


Yesterday he drank

Lately he’s drunk

Lately you’ve chosen.

Let’s look now at some complex expressions with “this morning”; sometimes we use the past simple when we’re talking about “this morning ‘cuando ya es por la tarde’” and sometimes we use the present perfect when it’s still “this morning”.

How much have you drunk this morning?

How much did you drink this morning?

We’ve chosen six candidates this morning.

This morning the boss chose the best one.

This morning my neighbour lent me his lawnmower. …cortacésped


Irregular verbs; today we’re going to look at five more, starting with:

To forecast – forecast – forecast: Pronosticar, preveer

To have – had – had: Tener

To bend – bent – bent: Doblar objetos metálicos

To fold – folded – folded: Doblar ropa.


To swell – swelled – swollen: Hincharse

To mislay – mislaid – mislaid:  Extraviar o perder


Have you ever had a migraine? Migrañas

At Hannah’s: En casa de Hannah, cuando decimos “en casa de alguien” es muy común omitir la palabra “house”.


I think I’ve just mislaid my car keys.

Your leg has swollen even more since yesterday. Se ha hinchado incluso más…

The river swelled and flooded the town. El río creció e inundó el pueblo

Inundarse: To be flooded.

Inundar: To flood – flooded – flooded.

Street lamps: Farolas

How did you bend your side mirror? ¿Cómo doblaste tu espejo lateral?

I bent it when I was trying to park.

Did you have a good time in the Alpes? ¿Lo pasaste bien…?

When my wife mislaid her credit card, we panicked for half an hour.

Nos entró el pánico durante media hora.

“Panic” funciona como verbo y como sustantivo


My face swelled when I was stung by a wasp. Me picó una avispa

Es más común emplear la voz pasiva que atribuir la acción a la avispa con un verbo en activo.


Janet’s face swelled even more when she was bitten by a spider.

When we’re talking about spider we say they bite us, okay? I was bitten; I was bitten by a spider. I was bitten by an ant, but I was stung by a wasp, I was stung by a bee.


Did his thumb swell after he shut it in the door? ¿Se le hinchó el dedo gordo después que se lo pillase con la puerta?

La “b” de “thumb” es muda <záam>


Okay, let’s look at three more verbs then, and use them and do them and do them and do them to death.

To begin – began – begun: Empezar

To leave – left – left: Marcharse, dejar

To pay – paid – paid: Pagar

Lately I’ve begun.

Yesterday you began

Empleando la siguiente expresión; towards the end of last year. Que significa; hacia finales del año pasado.

Towards the end of last year you began.

Towards the end of last year I left my girlfriend.

Towards the end of last year we paid the builders. …pagamos los albañiles

Towards the end of last year Martin paid for the course.


Towards the end of last year Sally began to study Spanish

Towards the end of last year our son left home to go to University

Towards the end of last year I began to feel pain in my ankle.

Towards the end of last year I left my company for good.

We don’t say “for always” but “for good”


Let’s look at three more verbs then, starting with the verb:

To quit – quit – quit: Dejar, abandonar. En U.K. es más común; to give up o to pack in

To meet – met – met: Conocer, encontrarse con alguien.

To steal – stole – stolen: Robar.

Let’s look at some very basic examples then, we always do and then we’ll look at some complex ones in a minute, okay?

Lately they’ve stolen

Empleando la expresión: A fortnight ago; hace una quincena o un par de semanas

A fortnight ago Nigel met the Pope.

Cualquier verbo que le sigue a “quit” va en gerundio.


A fortnight ago Larry quit bothering us. …dejó de molestarnos

A fortnight ago the president stole $2,000,000

A fortnight ago I quit drinking coffee

A fortnight ago Jim stole a pair of socks.

A fortnight ago my brother-in law met his father for the first time.

A fortnight ago Lucy quit growing vegetables. …Lucy dejó de cultivar vegetales.


Let’s look at three more verbs then, starting with the verb:

To rise – rose – risen: Subir, levantarse.

To mean – meant – meant: Significar, querer decir

To lead – led – led:  Encabezar, guiar

Okay, let’s start then with some really easy examples, okay?

Lately I’ve risen. Últimamente me he levantado

Lately she’s meant….ella ha querido decir

Let’s look at some more complicates examples now, using the expression “in the olden ways” which is the way we say “antaño”


Generals: Generales “rango militar”

In the olden days, prices rose very slowly.

In the olden days, traveling abroad meant a long uncomfortable journey.

Antaño viajar al extranjero significaba un viaje largo e incómodo.


In the olden days, countries were led by leaders….fueron dirigidos por líderes

In the olden days, workers rose before dawn….antes del amanecer

In the olden days, the word “gay” meant “happy”

In the olden days, explorers led expeditions to faraway lands. …mandaban expediciones a tierras lejanas.


In the olden days, the sun rose at the same time it does today. …que hoy en día


Okay, let’s look at three more exciting verbs, let’s start with the verb:

To keep – kept – kept: Guardar.

To grow – grew – grown: Crecer, cultivar

To blow – blew – blown: Soplar, despilfarrar

Okay then, let’s start with some really easy per easy examples in which we just focus on the verb.

Every day he grows. Yesterday he grew. Lately he’s grown

Every day they blow. Yesterday they blew. Lately they’ve blown

Lately we’ve kept.

Let’s look now, at some slightly more complex examples within the context of the following expression; the year before last, which means “El antepasado año”

A receipt: Un recibo o ticket.

The year before last we kept all receipts.

They grew twenty percent.

Twenty percent: Un veinte por ciento.

The year before last they made me blow hard into the bag. (Pruebas de alcohol)

The year before last Celia kept all the newspapers.

The year before last Michael grew fifteen centimeters.

The year before last we blew all our savings in a casino

The year before last Peter blew £10,000 on an unwise investment. …Pedro derrochó 10mil libras en una inversion imprudente.

The year before last I kept all my clothes in a suitcase.


Three more irregular verbs, starting with:

To bleed – bled –bled: Sangrar

To freeze – froze – frozen: Congelar/se

To ride – rode – ridden: Montar

Let’s start then as we always do with the really basic exercises in which we just flick or jump from tense to tense, okay?

Yesterday I froze some lentils. Ayer congelé algunas lentejas

Now we’re carry on with some slightly more complex examples using the same free verbs within the context of the following expression; early last winter “a principios del invierno pasado”

Early last winter she froze some courgettes….algunos calabacines

Early last winter they rode a bike….montó en bici

Early last winter Harry’s nose bled….le sangró la nariz a Harry.

Early last winter my pansies froze….se me congelaron los pensamientos

Early last winter my daughter rode a donkey…montó en burro

Early last winter her nose bled….le sangró la nariz


It’s time to look at another three irregular verbs, starting with the verb:

To sink – sank - sunk: Hundirse

To hide – hid - hidden: Ocultar, seconder

To light – lit - lit: Encender, prender; but the way “to light” only means “encender” en el sentido de encender una chiminea o un cigarro, cuando enciendes una luz, decimos siempre “to switch on or to turn on” okay, let’s start with some really easy per easy examples just working on the verb across different tenses.

Okay, let’s look at some slightly more complex examples now, within the time expression “last Sunday”

The Bay of Biscay: El Golfo de Vizcaya

The English Channel: El Canal de la Mancha

Last Sunday we lit a bonfire….una hoguera

Last Sunday I hid the money under the mattress…bajo el colchón

Last Sunday my heart sank when I read the news…se me cayó el alma a los pies..

Last Sunday I lit the fire because it was cold….encendí la chiminea…


Let’s look at three more verbs then, starting with the verb “to forgive” which word sense is exactly the same way as the verb “give”

To forgive – forgave – forgiven: Perdonar

To hang – hung – hung: Colgar o ahorcar.

To tear – tore – torn: Rasgar; okay, “tear” is official verb which means “rasgar”. También lágrima pero la pronunciación cambia <a tia>

Oki-doki then. Let’s go with a normal said, very easy samples in which we just work of the mechanics of these three verbs, okay?


Lately I’ve forgiven you.

Yesterday he hung. Lately he’s hung.

Every day they tear it. Yesterday they tore it. Lately they’ve torn it.

Okay, let’s look at some slightly more complex examples now, using the time expression “late yesterday evening” which means “en la tarde noche de ayer”

Late yesterday evening they hung the pictures.

Late yesterday evening I tore my jacket. …rasgué mi chaqueta

Late yesterday evening he tore all his letters or late yesterday evening he tore up all his letters.


When we’re talking about “rompiendo papel” is quite commented add “up” after the verb “to tear”; to tear up some paper. I tore up my letters. I tore up my bill. I tore up the envelope.

Siempre decimos “to forgive someone for something”. Si va seguido de un verbo; to forgive someone for doing something.

Late yesterday evening I forgave my brother.

Late yesterday evening they hung their boots next to mine.

Late yesterday evening she tore her skirt. …rompió su falda

Late yesterday evening they hung the criminal.