PHRASAL VERBS. Verbos compuestos


TO COUNT ON. Contar con

We don’t say to count with.

Can I count on you?

Don’t count on them.

We can count on his support.

Do you think we can count on her?

He’s such a reliable person that we can count on him for anything.


TO GET ON. Subirse

Getting on the bus. Getting on the train. Getting on the plane.

Con un coche decimos: To get in.



Can you write down your number please?

Please, write down any messages you receive.                 

I would’ve written it down, if I’d understood.

I can´t read the name he’s written down.       


TO GET OFF. Bajarse

Get off the table, you fool!                                      

You have to get off at the next stop.                     

You can’t get off here it’s not an official stop.

Why did he get off without the rucksack? Por qué salió sin la mochila?

What stop do we have to get off at?                

I got off at the wrong stop.                                 



To sort out; is the verb we use and all full lot in English and it means:

Resolver, solucionar o arreglar.

To sort: Clasificar, ordenar. -Sort (noun): Clase, tipo. All the sort; al respecto.


We have lot of things to sort out.

Sort it out yourself! ¡Arréglatelas tú mismo! 

The legal matters were sorted out last month. Los asuntos legales…



This is one of the most common phrasal verbs in the book.

To pick up means: Recoger un objeto o a alguien.

For example:

I’ll pick you up at nine.

We have to pick them up at the airport.

You didn’t pick them up at the right time. Acordada

Where shall I pick you up? ¿Dónde te recojo?

Can you pick me up at four o’clock?

They’ll pick you up from the airport.



In English we always say “To be born”. It’s a passive verb, literally is “Ser parido”, okay? To be born, I was born.

Was I born with blue eyes?

Were your children born in Spain?

Where were you born?

Where was Beethoven born?

We weren’t born in Spain.

Where were they born?


TO LET OUT. Dejar salir

Let me out! Let’s look at some examples then:

Let me out of here!

They shouldn’t have let him out of the prison!

Don’t let the bird out of the cage!

Close the door you´re letting all the heat out.

Could you let me out at the station please?

Who let the cat out?



To put out means; extinguir o apagar un fuego. También se utiliza para velas.

Candles: Velas

It took the firemen five hours to put out the fire. Los bomberos tardaron cinco horas en apagar el fuego.

We used the garden hose to put the fire out. Utilizamos la manguera del jardín para apagar el incendio

Use the candle snuffer to put the candles out. Utiliza el apagavelas para apagar las velas.

To snuff out: verbo empleado para apagar velas.

You can snuff out the candles.

Never use water to try and put out an electrical fire. Nunca utilices agua para intentar apagar un fuego eléctrico


To try and put; because, is really common for us to say “to try and do something” instead of “to try to do something”:

I’ll try and come: Intentaré venir. I’ll try and remember: Intentaré recordar

It’s really common!



Today’s phrasal verb means; Aguantar o tolerar.

Let’s look at some examples, shall we?

You don’t have to put up with those insults. No tienes por qué aguantar esos insultos

And with all of phrasal verbs it’s a good idea to think of the verb as one word; to put up with

Tendrás que aguantarte; diríamos tendrás que aguantártelo

In this case we would say; to put up with it. We can’t say; to put up with yourself.

Good. You’ll just have to put up with it.

No podemos decir “aguantarte” sino “aguantártelo”

I can’t put up with this heat. No puedo aguantar este calor

How do you put up with this smell? Cómo aguantáis este olor?

Your mother won’t put up with this mess. Tu madre no aguantará este desorden

I couldn’t put up with my boss’ demands. No podía aguantar las exigencias de mi jefe

Boss’s; no hace falta escribir la “s” final y se pronuncia “bosis”



To put away means; colocar o guarder: To put away your clothes, to put away the shopping.


Put away your clothes please. Guarda tu ropa por favor.

Will you put away the dishes for me? ¿Me guardas los platos por favor?

El pronombre se coloca entre el verbo y la preposición.


I’ll put them away when I have time. Lo guardaré cuando tenga tiempo.

Little Timmy’s putting away his toys. El pequeño Timmy está guardando sus juguetes.


When are you going to put away your tools? ¿Cuándo vas a guardar tus herramientas?


Put that away right now! ¡Guarda eso ahora mismo!



To put something in the fridge. To put something in a box. Let’s go then:

Put this into the fridge. Mete esto en la nevera

He’s putting his mobile into his pocket. Él está metiendo su móvil en el bolsillo

Normalmente se puede usar la preposición “in” en vez de “into” sin cambiar la acepción (acepcion; cada uno de los significados de una palabra)


Are you going to put it into your bag? ¿Vas a meterlo en tu bolsa?

I’m putting the chicken into the oven now. Estoy metiendo el pollo en el horno ahora

Are you putting something into the microwave? Estás metiendo algo en el microondas?

Excepcion del uso de “something” en interrogativo


I’m putting the dinner into the microwave. Estoy metiendo la cena en el microondas


TO PUT ON. Ponerse algo de ropa.

I’m putting on my jumper or I’m putting my jumper on.

I’m putting it on.

Are you putting on your coat?

I put on my watch every morning

Are you putting on your clothes?

He usually puts on his glasses when he drives. Normalmente se pone gafas para conducir

Put your coat on, put it on now….póntelo ahora

Come on, put your shoes on put them on quickly.

Put your smart jacket on! Elegante



You should make it up with your brother before it’s too later.

It will be easy to make it up with him.

She hasn’t made it up with her best friend yet.

Don’t make it up with him, until you’ll sure he was telling the true.

Have you made it up, with your colleague, yet? ¿Ya, has hecho las paces?



We’re going to look at the way we say: “Asumir”. There is a verb in English: To assume, which is a false friend, actually means “dar por hecho” for example; I assume you learn.

To take on; “asumir responsabilidades, asumir funciones etc, etc.” and, just like to contract or to hire, to take on:

To take on a new member of staff

To take on a new assistant

All right then. Let’s go:

I’ll take on whatever duties are required. …cualquier función (pl.en ingles)

We’re taking on a temporary secretary to help us with the work.

We can’t take on more people.

I think you are taking on more than you can do.

Are they going to take on somebody without any experience?

What does assume mean? Dar por hecho


TO TAKE OFF. Despegar

What time does the plane take off? A qué hora sale el avión?

It takes off in half an hour. Sale en media hora

Does the flight to Tenerife takes off at the same time every day? ¿El vuelo de Tenerife sale a la misma hora todos lo días?


TO TAKE OFF. Quitarse

To take off: we take off clothes.

You take off your tie or you take your tie off.

Take it off. Take them off.

Are you going to take off your scarf? ¿Vas a quitarte la bufanda?

Can you take off your watch please?

I can’t take off my ring.

To take off has very different meanings. We’re going to focus on one which is: Quitarte ropa.

For example: To take off your shoes, to take off your jumper, to take off your shirt.

Muslims have to take their shoes off when they enter in a mosque.

I won’t take my clothes off unless it’s for artistic reasons.

I think I’ll take my shoes off.

When can we take this ridiculous uniform off?



This is a nice verb for lazy people. People who like to make excuses about; why they haven’t done something?


Sorry! I didn’t getting around to doing it! ¡Lo siento! no llegué a hacerlo

I eventually got around to doing it last night. Por fin pude hacerlo…..

We’ll get around to painting the fence soon. Pronto podremos pintar la cerca.

He hasn’t gotten (got) around to finishing the report yet. Todavía no ha podido

Did the insurance company get around to dealing with your claim?

¿Pudo tramitar la reclamación a tu cliente?


Will you get around to writing the letter this weekend? Podrás….?

We’ll get around to tidying the garage soon. Nos pondremos pronto a ordenar el garaje.


TO PUT THROUGH TO. Pasar (una llamada)

This is a really, really useful verb when I being on the phone to put through someone to someone else, it’s:

I’m putting you through to the boss now. Te estoy pasando con jefe ahora.

You put me through to the wrong person last time.

Can you put me through to Juan please?

The secretary never put me through to the manager.

Can you put me through to switchboard please? Con centralita

How do I put calls through to you?


TO SHAKE OFF. (Quitarse a alguien de encima)

To shake off is a verb which it means; deshacerse de alguien, de algo también “like a cold”. You can shake off a cold or you can shake off someone who is annoying you.

Let’s have a look then, don’t forget that the verb to shake in itself is more complex because of the fact that it’s irregular

We say: To shake – shook – shaken

I managed to shake off the private investigator when I went into the metro.

Logré deshacerme…..cuando entré en el metro.


The actress shook off the reporter by getting in a taxi. …se deshizo del periodista subiendo en un taxi.


I can’t seem to shake off this cold. No parece que pueda quitarme

If I haven’t shaken off this flu by the next week, I’m going to the doctor.

Si no me he quitado de encima este resfriado


Why can’t she shake off her depression?


TO TURN ON. Encender

There are two main verbs for “encender en ingles” one is; to switch on and the one we’re going to focus on today: To turn on, okay? All right, okeydokey

Have you turned it on?

Did you turn them on? ¿Los encendiste tú?

Don’t turn on the T.V.


TO GET RID OF. Synonymous of TO SHAKE OFF.

Last week we looked at the verb “to shake off”, now we’re going to look at a synonymous verb; to get rid of something, to get rid of it.

You should to get rid of your old car.

Real Madrid got rid of their old manager.



I’ll turn off the light.

I’m turning it off.

I’m turning it off now.

Did you turn it off when you left?

I turned off the TV before I left.

Can you turn off the radio, please?

Turn the lights off before you go to bed.

Turn off the lights before you go to bed.



To run out of means; cuando de quedas sin algo

I’ve run out of sugar.

I’ve run out of ideas. Me he quedado sin

O cuando se te acaba algo:

Sorry guys! I’ve run out of money.

I don’t have any rice left. I run out last night. No me queda….Se me acabó

I don’t have any money left. I run out last night.

I don’t have any petrol left. I run out last night.


TO LOOK UP (IN). Buscar

If you can’t find his number, look it up in the telephone directory.

They can look up the information in the encyclopaedia.

Could you look up this word on internet?

I don’t like looking up words in the dictionary.



Okeydokey, we’re gonna look at two expressions; one of which is “acostumbrarse a algo”  and the other “estar acostumbrado a algo”. We start with the first:

To get used to something; looking at the examples with the substantive: To get used to the weather, to get used to someone accent, to get used to a job; siempre hablando del proceso de acostumbrarse, okay? Empleando el verbo “Get”.


I got used to the Spanish language very quickly.

Okay. Now we’re going to look at some examples, when “to get used to” is followed by a verb. We can strange because it’s one of the few occasions when the preposition “to” is followed by the gerund: TO GET USED TO DOING SOMETHING (Acostumbrarse a hacer algo).

Jack is getting used to living in Spain right now.

I got used to driving on the right very quickly.

People often makes mistakes with the substrate; to get used to doing something, because there is a similar expression; I used to do (Lo que antes hacía; no tiene nada que ver).

Henry’s two-year-old son is getting used to brushing his teeth.

I’ll never get used to calling the boss by his first name. nombre de pila.

Are you getting used to working in the marketing department?

They’re getting used to living together.

Now, we’re gonna look at the expression “estar acostumbrado a” which in English we would say: TO BE USED TO SOMETHING.

Again we start with some examples where “to be used to” is followed by a noun or a substantive:

I’m used to life in the city. (And not “the life”)

Kate isn’t used to hot food.

Kate isn’t used to heavy traffic.

Let’s look at some examples now, where “to be used to” is followed by a verb.

A tax rebate: devolución de la renta.

My mother is used to cooking for lots of people.

I’m not used to giving presentations in English. Dar presentaciones

Kate isn’t used to giving orders.

They’re not used to making an effort.


TO TAKE SOME GETTING USED TO. Cuesta acostumbrarse

Living in Spain doesn’t take much getting used to.

Diet soft drinks take some getting used to. …a los refrescos “light”

Wearing a tie takes some getting used to.

Speaking in public takes some getting used to.

Using a new mobile phone doesn’t take much getting used to.

Dealing with the general public takes some getting used to.



Sheila has fallen out with Jessica again.

David is constantly falling out with his neighbour.

I fell out with my girlfriend last week.

Have they fallen out or something?



To wriggle is a delightful little word. To wriggle means; no estar quieto

To wriggle out of means; escabullirse de algo

The double “u” of course is completely silent: To wriggle.

In fact, it’s true of me, I never stop wriggling. No me puedo estar quieto.

Stop wriggling! ¡Estate quieto!


He’s always trying to wriggle out of our weekly meetings. Siempre intent…

To wriggle out of the date: Escabullise de la cita.

She wriggled out of paying for her drinks.



This is the verb that every child is very familiar with it.

To tell off means: Regañar

To be told off, in the passive: Ser regañado.


Why don’t you tell him off?

Some people resent it when you tell them off in public.

After I told them off, they began to laugh.

Did you tell her off about hitting the cat? ¿Le regañaste por pegar al gato?

This is a phrasal verb I hope I want never have to use with you. I don’t want to have to tell you off, if you come one day and say; I don’t study at all this week. Okay? Because you have to study every day.

Are you going to tell him off? ¿Le vas a regañar?

She’ll tell you off if she catches you. Te regañará si te pilla.

My parents used to tell me off for not doing my homework….los deberes.

The children were told off for shouting in class. Regañaron a los chicos por gritar en clase.

He would have told me off if he’d realized. Me habría regañado…hubiese dado cuenta

Should I tell her off next time? ¿Debería regañarla la próxima vez?



This is my favourite phrasal verb in the entire world. To faff about means; dar vueltas sin realmente hacer nada, perder el tiempo (to fool around). To faff about or to faff around, okay? Let’s look then:

Would you stop faffing about? ¿Deja de dar vueltas quieres?

We should’ve left half an hour ago, but he’s still faffing about inside. Deberíamos habernos marchado en 1/2h., pero él todavía sigue dando vueltas dentro.


I can’t believe that tomorrow is the deadline and you’re faffing around like this.

Y tú estés así dando vueltas.


The last time I saw him, he was faffing around in the garage.

Tell him to stop faffing around and get in here.



Today’s phrasal verb means: Atropellar.

Of course we use this both actively and in the passive, for example:

Have you ever run over an animal?

We say that two words very quickly together; to run over “como si fuesen una sola palabra”

Have you ever run over a deer?

You’ve run over my foot!

You nearly run over that man or you nearly run that man over.

That car, nearly run me over!

“Me” must go in the middle because it’s a pronoun, okay?



In Spanish you say “tomarle el pelo a alguien”. In English we say literary “tirarle de la pierna a alguien”: To pull someone’s leg or using the phrasal verb we’re going to focus on: To have someone on.

I’m having you on!

Are you having me on?


I’m only pulling your leg!

Both expressions are expressed in present continuous.


TO LOOK OUT (OF) THE WINDOW. Mirar (hacia afuera)

This phrasal verb means simply; asomarse a la ventana o mirar a través de la ventana.

Now let’s have look at some examples:

I looked out of the window but couldn’t see anyone.

We can omit the preposition “of” if you like; I looked out the window or I looked out of the window.

She spends hours looking out of the window.

I’m looking out of the window but I can’t see a windmill

I don’t like looking out of the window in case I see my neighbour. Por si…


To look through the window: Cuando miramos desde fuera.



Peter is a verb, to peter out means; irse acabando, desvaneciéndose. It’s totally regular, therefore in the past we pronounce it; petered out


Don’t you get the feeling that we’re lost? ¿No tienes la sensación de que estamos perdidos?


Their enthusiasm petered out as the weeks went by.

Su entusiasmo se iba desvaneciendo según pasaban las semanas


The supplies have been petering out since we lost contact with base camp.

Las provisiones se están agotando desde que perdimos el contacto con el campamento.


After one last roar, the engine petered out completely.

Tras un último rugido, el motor se agotó completamente.


My patience is beginning to peter out.



We’re gonna look now two verbs which both of them mean the same thing and basically mean “llegar”.

To turn up; is a verb which it has a slight connotation overstressing or annoyance. We often use “turn up” when we talking about someone who arrives late on a regular basis: He always turns up late. Or when we’re talking about someone we don’t want to see: Look who’s turned up! Okay?

“Mira quien acaba de llegar” okay? So let's dislike negative connotation. “Show up” is not quite sense negative on the other hand.

For example:

What time did he turn up?

We always have to wait for you to turn up. …a que lleguéis

Did she turn up on time?

She turned up late as usual. …como siempre

He showed up with his new girlfriend.

Is it alright if I show up a bit later? ¿Está bien si aparezco un poco tarde?

They showed up in a limousine.



To egg on means the same as: To encourage.

To encourage to someone to do something: To egg them on; Incitar

He egged me on, to throw eggs at the politician.

Hacer travesuras: To do naughty things or to be naughty.

Why are you always egging your brother on, to do naughty things?

Tonterías: Silly things –Travesuras: Naughty things.


TO MAKE Something UP

To make something up means; inventarte algo. “No inventar” to invent something, for example: To invent the wheel, to invent the telephone, to invent want ever.

He’s making it up. Se lo está inventando

As you go along. Sobre la marcha

You’re making it up as you go along! ¡…sobre la marcha!

I can’t believe you made that up! ¡…que te lo inventaras!

Stop making things up! ¡Deja de inventar!


I’m not making it up, it’s true! ¡…es verdadero!; así dicen los ingleses.

It’s the truth: suena forzado.



Your knuckle; are your “nudillos” and to knuckle down is “ponerse a hacer algo en serio”

Knuckle down! ¡Ponte a trabajar en serio!

When are you going to knuckle down to study? ¿Cuándo te vas a poner a estudiar en serio?

Let’s knuckle down to work! ¡Pogámonos a trabajar en serio!

If I don’t knuckle down to work, I’m going to get sacked. …me van a despedir.

I’m finding it difficult to knuckle down and revise for the exam.

Me está costando ponerme en serio a repasar para el examen.


Let’s knuckle down and clean this house once and for all.

Pongámonos a limpiar esta casa de una vez por todas



What does boil mean? Herbir.

This is the verb that’s used often in the kitchen; to boil a source down to something, but it means: Reducir a lo esencial.

Let’s look at some examples then:

When it boils down to it we’re all the same. Al fin y al cabo todos somos iguales  

It all boiled down to money.

Es un verbo compuesto inseparable. No se puede decir “boil it down to”.

It boiled down to a conflict of interests.

With men it usually all boils down to one thing. Para los hombres por lo general todo se reduce a una sola cosa



To speak means: Hablar más fuerte o también decir lo que uno piensa; To speak up

I want to speak up

Speak up, I can’t hear you.

Don’t be afraid to speak up during the meeting.

You’ll need to speak up if you want them to take notice of you. fijen en ti.

Can you speak up? It’s a terrible line (hablando por teléfono)

I can’t speak up, I have a sore throat. …me duele la garganta

What’s wrong with you? Are you a man or a mouse? Speak up! ¿Qué te pasa?

Stand up and speak up! Ponte de pie…

Speak up I don’t bite!



To make your mind up, means; decidirse.  

I make my mind up –You make your mind up – He makes his mind up…

Make up your mind! !Decídete ya!

Podemos decir: Make your mind up or make up your mind.

She’s made up her mind quit his job. Ha decidido renunciar a su puesto.

You need to make your mind up soon. Tienes que decidirte pronto

She has made up her mind to leave him. Ha decidido dejarle.

How did you make up your mind so quickly? ¿Cómo te decidiste tan pronto?

Come on, make your mind up! We haven’t got all day.

Why do you always find it so difficult to make your mind up?

¿Por qué te cuesta siempre tanto decidirte?


Make up your mind before it’s too late. Decídete antes que sea…


TO SHUT UP. Callar

Why don’t you shut up? ¿Por qué no te callas?

Shut up! You’re giving me a headache.

I’ll shut up when I finish saying what I have to say.

Don’t you tell me to shut up! ¡No me digas que me calle!

When he’s drunk, it’s impossible to make him shut up.

To be quiet; es menos fuerte.

Be quiet! “en vez de” shut up.



To get at means; querer decir

What are you getting at?

Or to insinuate:

I don’t understand what you’re getting at. No entiendo lo que estás insinuando.

What on earth are you getting at? ¿Qué demonios estás insinuando?

Are you getting at something in particular? ¿Quieres decir algo…?

That’s exactly what I’m getting at. Eso es exactamente lo que quiero decir

Haven’t you understood what I’m getting at yet?

¿Todavía no has comprendido lo que quiero decir?



To sell out is the verb we use when you in Spanish say: Agotarse las existencias o quedarse sin stock, también.

When you mention what sells out: We say to sell out of something; empleando una preposición adicional “of”; to sell out of wine, to sell out of books, to sell out of newspapers, okay?

They sold out of tickets immediately. Se les agotaron las entradas enseguida

We’ve sold out of bananas. Se nos han agotado las bananas.

Get there early; they usually sell out of everything very quickly. Llega pronto; se les suele agotar todo muy pronto


They’ve sold out of all copies of that book. Se les han agotado todos los ejemplares de ese libro.

Why do you always sell out of newspapers? You should have more.

If there were a fuel shortage, petrol would sell out of immediately. Si hubiera una falta de combustible, la gasolina se agotaría en seguida



To focus on means: Centrarse en algo.

You need to focus more on your work.

We’ll have to focus more on our marketing strategies.

Governments have to focus on the important issues, like global warming. Los Gobiernos tienen que centrarse en los temas importantes, cómo el calentamiento global.


What are we going to focus on in today’s meeting? ¿En qué vamos a centrarnos en la reunión de hoy?

In today’s meeting we’re going to focus on this year’s sales targets. …en los objetivos de ventas para este año

Focus on my eyes and I’ll try to hypnotic you



To pin down simply means; definir o hacer que alguien se defina. Okay? For example:

It’s really difficult to pin the Foreign Secretary down. Es muy difícil que el ministro de exteriores se defina.

By the way when we’re talking about “Ministros Británicos” we always talk about: Secretary’s.


The Foreign Secretary: Ministro de Exterior –The Home Secretary: Ministro del Interior

The Health Secretary: Ministro de Salud. With one exception and it is; The Chancellor of the Exchequer: Ministro de Economía.

There’s something about him I don’t like but I can’t pin it down. Hay algo en él que no me gusta pero no sabría decirte.


Can I pin you down to a date? ¿Puedo concertarte una fecha? ¿Puedo cancelarte una fecha?

It’s impossible to pin my brother down politically….encasillar a mi hermano…

Otra acepción de este verbo relacionada con la misma metáfora es la de “inmovilizar a alguien”



To bring up a subject, means: Sacar un tema en una reunión. Okay? Very easy, just remember that the past of the verb to bring is brought: Bring – brought – brought; yesterday I brought up the subject of…Let’s go then:


I want to bring up the subject of pay rises at the next meeting.

Quiero sacar el tema de los aumentos salariales en la próxima reunión.


I think this is the right time to bring up the subject of parking facilities.

Creo que este es el momento de sacar el tema del aparcamiento.


Who brought up the subject of the air-conditioning?

¿Quién sacó el tema del aire acondicionado?


I’ll bring it up at the next departmental meeting. Lo sacaré en la próxima…

When shall we bring it up?



What does “to cough” mean? Toser. And “to cough up” means; expulsar algo por la boca, tras toser. Otra acepción del verbo es; soltar dinero.

Come on cough up! ¡venga! ¡paga!

How much do I have to cough up? ¿Cuánto dinero tengo que soltar?

I had to cough up 200 pounds.



To catch up with, means: Ponerse al día.

You catch up with someone or you can catch up with your work.

I have a lot of work to catch up with. Tengo que ponerme al día con un montón de trabajo.

Once I’ve caught up with all my work, I’ll phone you. Una vez me haya puesto al día con todo mi trabajo, te llamaré.


When we get together on Friday, we can catch up.

Cuando nos juntemos…podemos ponernos al día



To catch someone out: Pillar; en el sentido de dejar en evidencia.

I’ve caught you out! ¡Te he pillado!

I’m sure I can catch you out. Seguro que puedo pillarte

And the pronoun “I, you” always go in the middle between the verb and the particle “out”; I can catch you out, I can catch him out, I can catch her out.


They haven’t caught me out yet.

El pasado y participio de “catch” se pronuncia <cort> con una “r” inglesa


If you want to catch Kate out ask her about Mediaeval History.



To catch on means; popularizarse. To catch on; of course in the past it would be: Caught on. Okay, something caught on; se hizo popular.

Those square wheels Ian patented never caught on. Esas ruedas cuadradas que patentó Ian nunca se popularizaron.


I think those Sudoku’s in English that Vaughan publishes could really catch on. Creo que esos Sudokus en inglés que publica Vaughan podrían hacerse muy populares.


I don’t think that idea will catch on. Creo que esa idea no se popularizará.

You never know; it might catch on. Nunca se sabe; puede que llegue a ser popular.

You never know; nos expresamos en segunda persona del singular cuando vosotros empleáis la tercera persona “nunca se sabe”.



To pull out means; echarse atrás o retirarse: To pull out of the competition, you can pull out of the commitment.

After spraining his ankle, the cyclist had to pull out of the Tour of France. Tras hacerse un esguince en el tobillo, el ciclista tuvo que retirarse del Tour…


They pulled out at the last minute. Se echaron atrás en el último momento

We decided to pull out of the project because it was too risky. Decidimos echarnos atrás respecto al proyecto porque era demasiado arriesgado



To settle down means: Tranquilizarse

Wait for the audience to settle down before you start your speech. Espera que la audiencia se calme antes de que empieces el discurso


Getting the children to settle down is without doubt a challenge. Conseguir que los chicos se calmen es sin duda un reto


Settle down or I’ll call the Police. Calmaos o llamaré…

They’ll never settle down unless you turn off the radio. Nunca se tranquilizarán a no ser que apagues la radio


They’d just settle down when you came in. Acababan de calmarse cuando tú has entrado

Things are just beginning to settle down again. Las cosas están empezando a calmarse de nuevo


TO GET UP. Levantarse

What time do you get up every day?

Emily gets up at six o’clock in the morning.

I’m getting up.



To tune in means: Sintonizar

You can tune in to the radio program.

I tune in every night. Sintonizo todas las noches

Don’t forget tune in next week.

How many listeners tune in your show? Cuántos oyentes sintonizan tu programa?

Many people who want improve their English tune in to Vaughan Radio


TO TAKE UP TIME (to occupy time).

To take up time, is the verb we use when you in Spanish say: Ocupar time.

Replaying to e-mails takes up a lot of my time. Constestar a los correos e. me ocupa mucho tiempo.

Cuando un verbo en gerundio es el sujeto de otro verbo, este último debe expresarse en 3ª persona del singular.


What takes up most of your time? Qué es lo que ocupa mayor parte de tu tiempo?

Cleaning the garage took up most of the morning. Limpiar el garaje me ocupó la mayor parte de la mañana


Running errands took up my whole morning. Hacer recados me ocupó toda la mañana

Does playing with your children take up all your free time? ¿Jugar con tus hijos te ocupa todo tu tiempo libre?


TO WAKE UP. Despertarse

What time do you wake up every morning? A qué hora te despiertas cada mañana?

Wake me up at 9:00. Despiértame a las 9:00

He wakes up late on Sunday. Él se despierta tarde los domingos.

Wake Richard up at nine o’clock.



To grow up means: Criarse o hacerse mayor. Cuando lo empleamos en el imperativo:

Grow up! ¡No te comportes como un niño!

Grow up please! ¡No seas infantil por favor!

Después de la palabra “when” en un contexto futuro nos expresamos en presente simple.


When my son grows up, he wants to be a fireman. Cuando mi hijo crezca….

Cuando hablamos de profesiones y vocaciones empleamos el artículo indefinido “a” en inglés.


I don’t want my children to grow up in the centre of the city. …crezcan (se crien) en…

Where did you grow up? ¿Dónde te criaste?



Last week we looked at the phrasal verb to take in the relation to time; to take up time means “ocupar tiempo” we can use it in the same way when we’re talking about space “ocupar sitio, ocupar espacio” okay? You just be very careful with the pronunciation of the word space.


This armchair takes up too much space. Este sillón ocupa demasiado espacio

How much space do you think it’ll take up?



What does to look after mean? Cuidar de alguien o de algo.

Are you looking after her dog too?

My grandmother can’t look after herself.

Look after yourself!


TO PASS OUT-To faint

To pass out means: Desmayarse.

We’ve already seen this synonymous verb would be “To faint”, okay? But we tend to use “to pass out” even more. It’s totally regular so; I passed out yesterday. Okay let’s go:


As soon as he saw the needle, he passed out. En cuanto vió la aguja se desmayó 

Liz passed out because of the heat….se desmayó por el (debido) calor <past>

I thought I was going to pass out. Pensaba que me iba a desmayar

James always passes out when he has his blood tested. James siempre se desmaya cuando le hacen un análisis de sangre



To brush up on, means: Darle un repaso a algo.

I need to brush up on my English….darle un repaso a mi ingles

To brush means literally; cepillar.

You’ll have to brush up on your listening skills if you want to have a good interview. Tendrás que repasar tus habilidades de escucha si quieres hacer una buena entrevista

Brush: Se pronuncia bajando la mandíbula.


I don’t know what else I should brush up on. No sé a qué más debería dar un repaso

I brushed up on my Highway Code before taking my driving test. Repasé el código de circulación antes de presentarme al examen de conducir. 


TO THROW UP.  Vomitar

I was throwing up all night. Estuve vomitando toda la noche

I feel like throwing up. Tengo ganas de vomitar


My son threw up all over the new sofa.

Aunque “over” es suficiente como preposición, es muy común juntarle la palabra “all”. “All over” se emplea a menudo cuando hablamos de derrames.


“To be sick” la forma más decente de expresar “vomitar”. “To throw up” se utiliza mucho. “To puke” la forma más vulgar <piuk>



Tirar en sentido quitar de en medio o tirar a la basura

Don’t throw away those newspapers I need them.

Don’t throw those newspapers away I need them.



Hablar con alguien de forma condescendiente: En inglés; infringir una humillación sutil

RAE: La condescendencia es, en buen sentido, el deseo de complacer, dar gusto y acomodarse a la voluntad del otro. Sin embargo en sentido negativo se usa el término para referirse a una amabilidad forzada que nace del sentimiento de superioridad de otra persona. La RAE no reconoce la acepción inglesa. 


I hate it when people talk down to me. Lo odio cuando la gente me habla en tono condescendiente


I’ve never talked down to anyone. Nunca he hablado a nadie en tono condescendiente

If he talks down to me again, I’ll walk out of the room….abandonaré la sala

Es más dramatico decir “I’ll walk out of the room” que “I’ll leave the room”.

Abandon; se emplea para abandonar cosas o personas y no lugares.




To be into something means; of you finds something really interesting. For example:

You can be into football. You can be into pop music. You can even be into English.

I didn’t know you were into opera! No sabía que te apasionaba la opera

Are you into wine as well? ¿Te gusta el mundo del vino a ti también?

I used to be into football so I recognise a lot of the old stars. Antes me encantaba el fútbol así que reconozco muchas de las viejas estrellas


He’s really into his drink; a problem with drink. A él le gustan mucho las copas


TO GIVE SOMETHING A MISS. Pasar de algo, No mostrar interés por algo

I’m not into late nights so I think I’ll give the party a miss. No me gusta trasnochar así que creo que paso de la fiesta



To do up means:

To do up your shoelaces, to do up your tie. But we’re focus on its meaning like; hacer reformas.


I intend to do up the kitchen over the Easter holidays. Tengo la intención de arreglar la cocina durante las vacaciones de Semana Santa

Empleamos el sustantivo “intention” en los siguientes conceptos verbales:

It’s my intention to visit them when I’m in Rome.  I have no intention of retiring.

Tener intención de hacer algo es: To intend to do something


It’s taken three years to do up the house. Hemos tardado tres años en reformar la casa

We’re doing up the kid’s bedroom so the house is in a bit of a mess at the moment.

Estamos arreglando el dormitorio de los niños así que la casa está un poco desordenada en este momento.


I did up the bathroom last year. Arreglé el cuarto de los niños el año pasado



This is the verb we use when you in Spanish say: Dar la cara por alguien.

I’m going to stick up for you. Will you stick up for me? Okay. Don’t forget; stick in itself is an irregular verb. We say: Stick – Stuck – Stuck. 



To stick at something means; perserverar con algo


No confundir con TO STICK TO SOMETHING”: Ceñirse o limitarse a algo


You must stick at your English. You can’t expect a miracle to happen overnight. Tienes que perseverar con tu inglés. No puedes esperar a que ocurra un milagro  de la noche al día.


Initially he wasn’t a very good football player but he stuck at it and now he’s an international player. Al principio él no era muy buen jugador de fútbol pero perseveró en ello y ahora es un jugador internacional


Stick at it and you’ll soon improve. Sigue con ello y pronto mejorarás

Stick at this course and listen to the CD every day and your listening comprehension will get better and better. Sigue este curso y escucha el CD todos los días y tu comprensión auditiva estará cada vez mejor


Don’t give up! Stick at it! ¡No abandones, sigue con ello!



Can you take out the rubbish? “Trash” en US

I’ll take it out tonight.

Is she taking out her mobile?

I’m going to take out my calculator.

Don’t forget to take out the camera.



Today’s phrasal verb means: SUPERAR; En el sentido de una pérdida o una decepción emocional or even an illness, which is very relevant for us today, because Richard is ill and we hope that he is going to get over his illness very soon, okay?

Let’s look at some examples, shall we?

Over; si le sigue directamente un verbo, éste se expresará en gerundio.


Don’t worry you’ll get over it! No te preocupes ¡Ya se te pasará!

My girlfriend left me but I got over it very quickly. Mi novia me dejó pero lo superé muy rápido.

After losing in the final, it took him ages to get over it. Tras perder en la final, tardó mucho tiempo en superarlo



Well, today’s phrasal verb means; ser mandón con alguien.

Let’s look at the first example, shall we?


Don’t boss your younger brother around or a little brother sometimes. No seas mandón con tu hermanito

My older sister always used to boss me around. Mi hermana mayor siempre era mandona conmigo

Stop bossing us around. We know exactly what to do. Deja de mandarnos. Sabemos exactamente que hacer

El adjectivo “mandón” se traduce como “bossy”.


TO GET TO. Llegar a un lugar

What time do you get to the station every morning? A qué hora llegas a la estación cada mañana?

Casos en los que no empleamos “to” después de “get”; to get home, to get there, to get here.


I’ll get to the airport before you. Llegaré al aeropuerto antes que tú.

What time will Kevin get to the office? ¿A qué hora llega Kevin a la oficina?

I usually get to work at 8:30 every day. Normalmente llego al trabajo a las 8:30 todos los días.

No ponemos el artículo con el sustantivo “work”.


Jerry gets to school at 8:00. Jerry llega al colegio a las 8:00

Estamos hablando físicamente de la escuela como el edificio donde se realiza la actividad escolar, no de la actividad (p. ej. Sí todavía voy a la escuela, el próximo año voy al instituto). Por eso NO empleamos “the”.



To mull over which means; reflexionar sobre algo.

So for example:

I’m going to have to mull it over. Voy a tener que reflexionar sobre ello.

We’re mulling over a name for our baby. Estamos reflexionando sobre un nombre para nuestro bebé.

Why do you always mull over the menu for so long? Por qué reflexionas tanto tiempo sobre el menu?

Read this report and mull over its findings. Lee este informe y reflexiona sobre sus conclusionses.

We don’t say conclusions in this context; report or investigation. We say; findings.


What are you mulling over now? ¿Sobre qué estás reflexionando ahora?

Well done!



Standing; estar de pie. Stand up; ponerse de pie


Stand up, please. Ponte de pie, por favor.

I don’t want to stand up. No quiero ponerme de pie

Are you going to stand up? Vas a ponerte en pie?

I can’t stand up because my leg hurts. No puedo ponerme de pie porque me duele la pierna

A pregnant woman; una mujer embarazada



To go off means among some other things; “sonar” when we’re talking about: Alarm clocks or Alarms or bombs.

También puede significar; estallar en referencia a una bomba.


My alarm didn’t go off this morning. No sonó mi despertador esta mañana

I hate it when the alarm goes off. Odio cuando suena el despertador

The bomb went off just after four o’clock. La bomba saltó justo después de las 4

When I got back from my holidays, I forgot my PIN and the burglar alarm went off. Cuando regresé de mis vacaciones, se me olvidó mi PIN  y saltó la alarma antirrobo.



A couple of weeks ago we looked another meaning of the phrasal verb “To go off” which goes like “Sonar”. Today we’re going to look at “To go off” in the sense of “Echarse a perder”; food can go off.

If you don’t eat this yoghurt soon, it’ll go off. Si no comes este yogur pronto, se echará a perder.

It’ll: The contraction of “It will” como “little”; pero sin la “L” inicial. 

I think the milk‘s gone off. Creo que la leche se ha echado a perder.

It usually goes off after about three weeks. Suele echarse a perder después de aproximadamente tres semanas.



This phrasal verb when is presided by the word “How”: How to go about doing something; means “Como hacer para hacer algo”

For example:

How do I go about applying for a job in the Navy? Cómo hago para solicitar un puesto de trabajo en la armada.

Of course you can simply ask the question:

How do I apply for a job in the navy?

Pero cuando dices; How do I go about…? Implica el cómo se hace para hacerlo


I don’t know how to go about asking for help. No sé cómo hacer para pedir ayuda.

He didn’t know how to go about it. Él no supo cómo abordar el tema.

Con este verbo, “it” se coloca después de la preposición “about”.


Do you know how to go about becoming in civil servant? ¿Sabes cómo hacer para convertirte en funcionario?


There are lots of ways to go about it. Existen muchas maneras de abordarlo.

I wouldn’t go about it like that, if I were you. Yo que tú, no lo abordaría así.

Nobody knew how to go about patenting the product. Nadie sabía cómo hacer para patentar el producto.


TO GO OVER. Repasar, revisar, examinar

Will you go over your notes? ¿Repasarás tus apuntes?

We went over that last week. Eso lo repasamos la semana pasada.

We’ll go over this again soon. Repasaremos esto de nuevo pronto.



To go out means; salir. Salir de un edificio; To go out of a building or to go out with your friends.

Are you going out later? ¿Sales mas tarde?

Does Vanessa go out with Justin? ¿Sale Vanesa con Justin?

Cuando le sigue a este verbo las preposiciones “with” or “together” también puede tener el matiz de ser novios.


We went out on Thursday. Salimos el jueves.



To feel up to something means; sentirse con ánimo o con las fuerzas como para hacer algo.

For example:

I don’t feel like going. I don’t feel like talking to anymore.

Despuès de “to” le sigue siempre el gerundio

Good. I don’t feel up to it.

Si no le sigue un verbo empleamos “it”: I don’t feel up to it.


Are you sure you feel up to it? ¿Estás seguro que te sientes con fuerzas?

I don’t feel up to speaking to anyone, I’m afraid. Me temo que no me siento con fuerzas de hablar con nadie.


Do you feel up to having some hot soup? ¿Te sientes con fuerzas de tomar una sopa caliente?

I wanted to go but in the end I didn’t feel up to it. Quería ir pero al final no me sentía con fuerzas.



Sitting; que significa estar sentado; I’m sitting

To sit down: que describe la acción de sentarse

To sit down; sentarse.


Do you want to sit down? ¿Quieres sentarte?

Existen dos adjetivos para decir “sentado” en lugar de “sitting”; “sat and seated”, este último no se emplea tanto.


Tell him to sit down. Dile que se siente.

Will you sit down to eat? ¿Te sentarás para comer?



To make off means; to escape. So but; to make off with something means; to steal something, and obviously escape but the same time.

For example:

The thief made off with the rings. El ladrón robó los anillos

A pickpocket:

The pickpocket made off with two hundred euros. El carterista se escape  con 200€.

A burglar: Un ladrón de casas.

The burglar made off with my flat-screen TV. El ladrón robó mi TV. de pantalla plana.

The mugger made off with the man’s wallet after hitting him over the head. El atracador se hizo con la cartera del hombre tras golpearle en la cabeza.

A mugger: Atracador de viandantes, no de bancos.

A bank robber: Atracador de bancos.



To walk out on means:

Dejar a alguien o abandonar a alguien.

Dejar algo; to walk out on your job, for example.


When they refused to raise his salary he walked out on his job. Cuando se negaron a subir su sueldo él dimitió de su trabajo.

“Walk” tiene una “L” muda.


After years of arguing, Sam walked out on his wife and children. Tras años de discusiones, Sam abandonó a su mujer y a sus hijos.


Don’t walk out on your job until you’ve found another one. No dejes tu trabajo hasta que no hayas encontrado otro.


TO WORK OUT. Hacer ejercicio

Do you work out every day? I don’t work out every day.

No lleva complemento.


I like to work out every day. Me gusta hacer ejercicio todos los días.

Jim is working out at the gym at the moment. Jim está haciendo ejercicios en el gimnasio en este momento.


Does Susan work out? ¿Susan hace ejercicio?

Do you work out every day? ¿Haces ejercicio todos los días?

Graham always works out after work. Graham siempre hace ejercicio después del trabajo.


TO WARM UP. Calentare y puede ser transitivo o intransitivo

Are you warming up? Okay, let’s look at some examples, Okay the next one:

There are two Valencia players warming up on the side line. Hay dos jugadores del Valencia calentando en la banda.


I hope the audience warms up a bit. Espero que el público se anime un poco.

It takes him twenty minutes to warm up. Tarda 20’ en calentar

Have you warmed up yet? ¿Ya Has entrado en calor?

Jim never warms up when he goes running because he says he finds it boring. Jim nunca calienta cuando va a correr porque dice que le resulta aburrido.


To warm up: Calentar, calentarse, animarse.


TO LOOK UP TO. Admirar

I’ve always looked up to my father. Siempre he admirado a mi padre.

Harry looked up to his football coach whom he considered his idol. Harry admiraba a su entrenador de fútbol a quien consideraba su ídolo.


TO SUM UP. Resumir

To sum up synonymous to summarize

Can you sum up as quickly as possible, please? ¿Puedes resumir lo más rápido posible, por favor?


To sum up, the project was a great success. Resumiendo, el proyecto fue un enorme éxito.


To sum up, we’re going to have to make a massive effort ir we want this company to survive. Para resumir, vamos a tener que hacer un esfuerzo enorme si queremos si queremos que esta empresa sobreviva.


When you sum up, don’t forget to mention the Peterson project. Cuando resumas, no olvides mencionar el proyecto de Peterson.


TO SNAP SOMETHING UP. Comprar (comprar compulsivamente)

To snap as a verb means; cerrar de golpe

For example: A crocodile’s mouth snaps. But when we’re talking about; to snap something up, what we’re actually talking about is to buy something compulsively; to buy without thinking about it; it’s seem some in you like and you buy it. 


Snap up your copy of Vaughan Review while stocks last! ¡Llévese su copia de Vaughan Review hasta fin de existencias!


I came across this CD I’ve been after for ages, so I snapped it up straightaway. Encontré este CD que he estado buscando durante mucho tiempo, así que lo compré en seguida.


This jacket was an absolute bargain so I snapped it up. Esta chaqueta fue un chollo total así que me la llevé.


Thousands of people snapped up last week’s instalment of “El Curso definitivo de Inglés”. Miles de personas compraron la entrega de la semana pasada del Curso Definitivo de Inglés.


TO GET OUT OF. Escaquearse

To get out of means; salvarse o librarse de algo o de hacer algo.


Pepe got out of doing military service by pretending he was asthmatic.

Pepe se libró de hacer la mili fingiendo que era asmático.


TO FIND OUT. Enterarse (enterarse o averiguar)

I found out about it last night. Me enteré de ello anoche.

Who did you find out from? Por quién te enteraste?

We found out about something but we found out from someone “averiguar algo” but not in the sense of calculating “cuando te informas”

I’ll try and find out the cost of a return ticket. Intentaré averiguar el coste de un billete de ida y vuelta.


Have you found out anything interesting yet? ¿Has averiguado algo interesante ya?

What did you find out? Qué averiguaste?



To make something out means; entender algo o distinguir un sonido o divisor algo en la distancia.

I can’t make him out. No lo entiendo a él.


Can you make out that windmill on the horizon? ¿Ves aquél Molino en el horizonte?

I can’t make out my doctor’s handwriting. No entiendo la letra de mi médico.

I can make out a car in the distance. Escucho un coche en la distancia.


TO MAKE UP FOR LOST TIME. Recuperar el tiempo perdido

I’ll make up for lost time as soon as I get out of hospital.

Recuperaré el tiempo perdido en cuanto salga del hospital.


He made up for lost time during the Christmas holidays.

Él recuperó el tiempo perdido durante las vacaciones navideñas.


Did you manage to make up for lost time during the holidays? ¿Conseguiste recuperar el tiempo perdido durante las vacaciones?

It’s essential we make up for lost time. Es esencial que recuperemos el tiempo perdido.


I’m promise I’ll make up for lost time. Te prometo que recuperaré el tiempo perdido.

If you don’t make up for lost time now, you’ll never pass your exams. Si no recuperas el tiempo perdido ahora, nunca aprobarás tus exámenes.


Perder el tiempo; se suele decir “to waste time” y no “to lose time”.


We’ll all have to pull together to make up for lost time. Tendremos que trabajar codo con codo para recuperar el tiempo perdido.


We need to make up for lost time otherwise, we’ll miss the boat. Tenemos que recuperar el tiempo perdido, de otro modo perderemos el tren.

Los ingleses no pierden el tren sino que pierden el barco.



Dejar algo o dejar de hacer algo en referencia a un hábito.

When it’s followed by a verb, we put the verb in the gerund ending “ing”; I gave up smoking last year; I gave up running last year.

My wife gave up smoking ten years ago.

I’ve given up going to the gym.

What’s the best way to give up smoking? Para dejar…