Are you French? Are you German? Are you Russian?
What nationality are you? Australian
Is Madrid in the north of Spain or in the south of Spain? It’s in the centre of Spain.
There are some glasses on my table.
Whose are those glasses? Or whose some glasses are those?
Tell me are they yours or are they mine? They’re mine.
Is the Nile a long river or a short river? Is the Tames a long river? No, is not.
So, what is it? It’s a short river.
I’m sitting. Estoy sentado
I’m talking to you. Estoy hablando contigo.
You’re listening to me. Me estás escuchando.
I’m sitting down. Estoy sentado.
What are you doing? ¿Qué haces?
Am I speaking English or Spanish? You’re speaking English.
¿Estoy Hablando en inglés o español? Hablas en inglés.
Am I sitting down or standing up? ¿Estoy sentado o estoy de pie?
I’m sitting down. Estoy sentado.
Am I talking to you in Russian? ¿Te estoy hablando en ruso?
Are you looking at an elephant? ¿Estás mirando un elefante?
Am I eating an egg? ¿Estoy comiendo un huevo?
I’m not taking a coffee, I’m having a coffee. No me estoy llevando un café, estoy tomando un café.
Every day I have a coffee, I never take a coffee.
Let’s do a little exercise then:
People in Denmark are Danish. La gente en Dinamarca es danesa.
THE SPECIFIC PEOPLE
The people in my office smock. La gente en mi oficina fuma.
The people in my Street are nice. La gente de mi calle es simpática.
PRESENT SIMPLE; hechos que son habituales o siempre iguales.
It rains a lot in England. Llueve mucho en Inglaterra.
My boss works everyday too.
I don’t sing well.
I don’t understand he doesn’t understand.
My computer works. Does your computer works? Do you work on your computer every day?
And does your boss works on his computer every day? Do you work at his computer every day?
“ES” FINAL 3ªp.s.
I fix, he fixes. I catch, he catches. I wash, he washes.
My boss doesn’t catch a cold every day. Do you catch a cold every day?
WITH THE FREQUENCY ADVERBS
I usually catch a cold, but I’m usually happy.
I’m usually in a good mood. Are you in a good mood today?
THERE’S – THERE ARE
There aren’t any glasses on the table. No hay vasos en la mesa.
Is there any sugar? ¿Hay azúcar?
Is the some ink in the printer? Or is there any ink in the printer? ¿Hay tinta en la impresora?
Cuando preguntamos con “some” esperamos casi una respuesta positiva.
Do you want some tea? I want some or yeah, I do. ¿Quieres te?
Cuando preguntamos sobre objetos no contables o contables en plural empleamos “any”.
Are there any books on the shelf?
Are there any bags in the car?
NEAR AND FROM
Girona is near France, near the French border.
Cadiz is near Jerez.
What’s the opposite of “near”?
FAR; si lleva preposición
London is far from Madrid; would be an example.
Is Murcia near or far from Madrid?
Is Murcia near or far from Cartagena? It’s near Cartagena
Close to; near
Toledo is close to Aranjuez
Valdemoro is close to Pinto.
Valdemoro is near Pinto.
London is near Oxford, it’is quite near.
I can go. I can speak: Sin preposición.
I can go. I can speak. I can jump. I can sing. I can’t stop.
Can you speak English? Can you cook spaghetti? Can you play the guitar?
Can you speak Russian? Can you play the piano? I can play the piano.
I can’t play the violin. I can’t play football well.
I’m gonna read you some numbers in English and I want you to tell me what their equivalent is in Spanish, let’s go then.
1,005 -19,106 -89,005 -104,272
Do you live in Madrid? Do you speak English? Do you like me? Does your father live in Madrid?
Does your father work? Does he work in an office? Does he work in a big office?
Does he work in a small office? Do you live in Barcelona? Do I speak German?
Do I live in your house? Do I look like Harrison Ford? Do you like spaghetti? Do you like rice?
Do you like olives? Am I English? Are you Spanish? Am I American?
No, you aren’t or no, you’re not
Is your father German? Is your mother Russian? Is your mother my mother?
We back again. We didn’t think we had to be back, but we back, because we forgot about the index which you’ll be glad to know, we’re not going to read through now.
What we’re gonna do is make use this disc, to go over the most important parts of the course; the grammatical points where Spaniards always make mistakes. I’m gonna put you through your paces, we’re gonna do a potpourri, touching on different points, okay don’t worry.
What we’re gonna do first then is your work on irregular verbs, every day and yesterday and then we’ll start using “recently” too we’ll look at the verb bet itself, in the present, then in the past and then using of course the participle, for example; Every day I beat, yesterday I beat and recently I’ve beaten (Todos los días gano ‘derrotar’, ayer gané, ultimamente he ganado).
Lately I haven’t caught a cold.
Every day I begin again.
He begins at seven o’clock every day.
Yesterday I bought yellow toilet paper.
My college always buys green toilet paper.
I always draw when I’m on the phone.
My mother always writes to my on Sunday, and recently?
How many times has she written to you?
Has she written to you a lot or not very much?
And recently she’s written to me a lot.
USUALLY AND USED TO
I usually blow my nose when I sneeze.
My boss used to wear a tie.
My colleague usually wears a tie.
Yes I used to wear a tie.
WILL AND GOING TO
What is the most common way of expression the future in English?
Going to; es mucho más común.
Empleamos “Will” con menos frecuencia, cuando no estás del todo seguro; con el verbo “to think”, con adverbios como “probably”.
Do you think it will rain? No I don’t think it’ll rain.
Do you think I’ll be late tomorrow?
I probably won’t go to the party.
I probably won’t in. Probablemente no entraré.
I’ll probably go. Probablemente iré.
I’ll probably have a coffee with my friend Juan.
Do you think he will come? Or do you think he’ll come?
SHALL: Preguntamos algo por cortesía
Shall I open the window?
Shall I give you a ring? Or:
Shall I give you a call?
Shall I give you a buzz?
Shall I give you a tin call?
Shall we go? Yeah, yeah let’s go!
Good, let’s go something different! Or let’s go something else!
Do you remember? Something else; otra cosa.
Someone else; otra persona
I’m about to do something.
What are you about to do?
I’m about to go.
I’m about to start.
I’m about to cough or clear my throat.
Iker is about to shout. Iker of course is an engineer.
They’re about to get married.
We couldn’t do a review, of the most important points, of the English language without covering the present perfect. I’m want gonna go look at in particular is the different between “for” and “since”.
For means; desde hace, durante.
Since; es desde.
“For” is a period of time.
I’ve been doing this job for three years.
I’ve lived in Spain for eight years.
“Since”; un punto específico en el pasado.
I’ve lived in Spain since 1999.
I’ve known you for five years.
Gona has lived in Spain for six years.
Gona has lived in Spain since two thousand and two.
Ago; siempre es con el pasado simple:
I met you three years ago.
Jamás empleamos “ago” con “since”
The last one then:
We’ve been making these recordings for one year. How time fly!
Let’s look at the comparative then. How exciting! I’m glad to see you so chirpy today. The comparatives in English are very easy but, it’s very important to be aware that there are two different ways of forming them. Depending on how long the adjective in question is. if itchy short adjective, for example big; New York is bigger than Madrid.
Anny is more intelligent than me.
Anny is more beautiful or prettier than I am.
Anny is angrier than I am.
I’m taller than my father is or I’m taller than my father.
This class isn’t as boring as the last one or the last class wasn’t as interesting as this one.
I’m not as intelligent as you are, is a same as; you’re more intelligent than me.
This class is more exciting than the last one.
The last class wasn’t as exciting as this one.
TO BE BORN
I wasn’t born on the second.
They weren’t born on the tenth.
What month were you born on? You were born on April.
I was born in June.
We’re gonna carry on with negative questions. Why? because negative questions are not that easy for Spaniard to use correctly in English.
It doesn’t rain much in the Sahara desert. Why doesn’t it rain much in the Sahara desert?
I don’t like spinach. Why don’t you like spinach?
Jack isn’t French. Why isn’t he French?
I shouldn’t tell you this. Why shouldn’t you tell me this?
I shouldn’t. Why shouldn’t you?
I’m not excited. Why aren’t you excited?
I’m not invisible. Why aren’t you invisible?
I’m not in Scotland. Why aren’t you in Scotland?
Aren’t: Como mi tía; my aunt.
Why aren’t you excited?
Why aren’t you in Scotland?
I’m not deaf. Why aren’t you deaf?
There aren’t any books on the table. Why aren’t there any books on the table?
TO WANT and TO ASK
Let’s look at two very easy verbs; the verb to want and the verb to ask.
They’re easy in themselves but of course which express them in a very different way to how you express, because in English we don’t have subjunctive like you in Spanish; “yo quiero que tu vengas” of course as you know we had to say: I want you to come.
We don’t want them to come.
She wants him to make an effort.
Yesterday I wanted him to make an effort.
I want him to go; and in the past: I wanted him to go.
When I talking about companies “earn” is okay, but is much, more common to use the verb to “make money”, okay?: Our boss wants the company to make money.
Let’s look at the verb to ask.
I asked him. Yo le pedí.
She always asks me to stay longer.
Do you want us to do something else? Ok yeah. Let’s do something else shall we?
THE FIRST CONDITIONAL: I will
1ª orac. Pres. Ind. español – 2ª orac. Fut. Ind. español.
Let’s look at the first conditional, all right? The first conditional is one we use when we’re hypothesizing about something within a specific future context, for example:
If it rains tomorrow I’ll bring my umbrella.
How do we form the first conditional? We say “if” and then we use present simple, and then in the other clause; empleamos el futuro con will o lo podemos decir al revés.
If you invite me to dinner or if you invite me out to dinner I’ll accept.
If we out for dinner we’ll have spaghetti.
If we out for dinner we’ll have a good time or to have a boat or to have a blast or to have a whale of a time.
If it rains tomorrow I won’t go to work.
If you don’t answer I’ll cry.
If Spain wins the European Cup, will you happy?
If I study well, will I be able to speak good English? Of course, if you study you’ll be able to speak good English.
And most important of course is to practices and practices and practices.
If your computer breaks down, will you buy another one?
THE SECOND CONDITIONAL: Would + basic verb.
1ª orac. Imperf. Subj. español – 2ª orac. Cond. español.
The second conditional now:
When do we use the second conditional? We use when we’re hypothesizing about the present or so like creating an alternative present, i.e. I can’t speak Chinese that’s so reality is a fact, but if I could speak Chinese I would tell you.
Good, how do we form the second conditional? We have “if plus the past simple” and then in the other clause “would plus basic verb”; if I knew I would tell you. Okay? And don’t forget of course with the verb “to be” we always say “If I were, if he were; siempre es ‘were’”.
If I didn’t need this course I would spend my money on something else.
When always talk about spending money on something; I spent a lot of money on books this month, for example.
If I were a pea I would be really tiny.
If I knew the answer I would tell you.
Would you be happy if you lived in France?
THE TRIRD CONDITIONAL: I would have + basic verb. (habría + verbo)
1ª orac. Pluperf. Subj. Compuesto español – 2ª orac. Cond. Perf. Compuesto español.
The conditional we use when we’re hypothesizing about the past, imagining a different alternative past, not the real past but on imagining everyone.
How do we form the third conditional? What we say “if” again; “if plus the English past perfect:
If I had known I would have told you.
If it had rained yesterday I wouldn’t have gone.
Nice and easy, easy p easy. A nice cheerful example:
If you had been late yesterday I would have shouted you.
What would you have done if you had missed the plane?
TO GET USED TO
You’ve got used to my accent over the last forty weeks to now of course, you're completely used to it. Are you it?
So we’re gonna look at those two verbs; to get used to something, and to be used to something.
I used to getting up early? Are you used to getting up early?
Yes, I’m used to getting up early.
Are you used to going to bed late? No, I’m not used to going to bed late.
Did it take you a long time to get used to driving?
Did it take you a long time to get used to speaking English?
No, another thing we’re looking at here of course is the verb “tardar” which in English always is expressed in an impersonal way, using “it” as a subject; it took me, it took me five minutes, it took her ten minutes, it took them twenty minutes, it took us an hour, okay? always using “it” as a subject.
Are you used to driving now?
Ask me if it took me a long time used to driving in Spain?
It took me a few weeks to get used to driving in Spain, because of course we drive on the other side of the road.
Ask me if I’m used to driving in Spain now.
Good, Yes, I’m used to driving in Spain now.
Okay, let’s move on to something else.
AND TO BE USED TO DOING SOMETHING.