The cake was so big that we couldn’t eat it all.

It was such a big cake that we couldn’t eat it all.

The car is so expensive that even my boss couldn’t afford it.

It’s such an expensive car that even my boss couldn’t afford it....permitírselo

The speech was so boring that I fell asleep.

It was such a boring speech that I fell asleep.

The people are so friendly that you’ll feel at home.

They are such friendly people that you’ll feel at home.

The opera was so long that I got bored.

It was such a long opera that I got bored.                                           

The drink was so strong that he got drank quickly. La bebida era tan fuerte que le emborracho rápidamente.


It was such a strong drink that he got drank quickly.                       

The curry was so spicy that I burnt my town. El curry estaba tan picante que quemé el pueblo.


It was such a spicy curry that I burnt my town.

The weather was so bad that I stayed at home. El tiempo era tan malo que me quedé en casa.


It was such bad weather that we stayed at home.                              

It was such a hard question that he couldn’t answer it.

The question was so hard that he couldn’t answer it.

They were such hard questions that we couldn’t answer them.

The questions were so hard that we couldn’t answer them.

It was such a good concert that I didn’t want it to finish.

The concert was so good...

It was such an awful joke that nobody laughed.

The joke was so awful that....

It’s such a well-written book that you won’t be able to put it down.

The book is so well-written that you won’t be able to put it down.

They were such professional-looking photographs that I bought three.

The photos were so professional-looking that...

They´re such comfortable chairs that you’ll never want to get up.

The chairs are so comfortable that you’ll never....



TO TAKE. Tardar


It takes three and a half months to complete the course.               

It takes four and a half years to get trained.. formarse

It takes three and a half minutes to find out the results of the test. Enterarse (conocer).


It took three years to win the war.

It took four years to reform the law.

It took four minutes to heat up the food.                  


It’s taking me a long time to write it.                          

It takes him an hour to get to work. llegar                         

It will take me a little longer.                                      

It took them more than a month.   

It’s going to take us five minutes.

It will take me an hour to arrive.                                       

It’s taking him too long.                                                      

It took her ten minutes.                                                      

It hasn’t taken them an hour.                                            

It’s taken us longer.                                                              

Did it take you long?                                          

Will it take us long?


How long does it take you to do it?                                

How long has it taken them so far?                 

How long will it take us to finish it?

How long did it take them to build it?  



When was the last time you drank a liter of petrol?

I’ve never drunk a liter of petrol.

When was the last time you went to sleep wearing skis?

I’ve never gone to sleep wearing skis.

When was the last time you gave me a lift to work?

I’ve never given you a lift to work.

When was the last time you sang in public in Japanese?

I've never sung in public in Japanese.

When was the last time a volcanic eruption took place in your living room?

A volcanic eruption has never taken place in my living room.

When was the last time your neighbor found a million € in a taxi?

My neighbor has never found a million € in a taxi.



Paul’s friend’s widow

My neighbor’s sister’s widower

Peter’s wife’s friend’s coffee machine

My secretary’s husband’s colleague’s computer

Cuando la palabra termina en ”s”

Andres’ son

Juan Carlos’s throne. Carlos’ throne. (Something belongs J.Carlos)

Pepe Valdes’ Company

Maria’s dog.

He ran over Helena’s cat.

Steven´s office is on 6th floor.

Where did you find Jenny’s coat?

I want to read Dan’s book

Jim heard Beethoven’s 5th Symphony on the radio.

Do you like Paul and Linda’s garden?

Ok, we're gonna to look at more examples now, this time with the third person in the plural, as the owner of the other object. What we do here is with add the apostrophe after the “s”.

She sold her parents’ house

Carlos’ car.

Luis’ house.

Chris’ violin is worth over 5,000€. Vale más de 5.000€.

We had dinner with Denis’ parents.

Did you find Charles’ diary in the end?



Nuestro Pas. Perf. Comp. es para los ingleses su Pres. Perf. Compuesto.


Has she ever seen the sea?

Have you ever talked Italian?

Has he ever grown a beard? ¿ha tenido barba alguna vez?

Have you ever won the world cup?





I think I’ll be in London this summer.                           

I reckon, I’ll be about ten minutes later                     

I reckon you’ll find it difficult.                               


I don´t think I’ll have time.                                                                    

I don’t think it’ll last long.                                 

I don’t think that will happen.                               


Do you think it will work?                                      

Do you think she’ll manage to do it?                   


I’ll probably go

It’ll probably rain.                                                                                 

We probably won’t go to the meeting.

They probably won’t stay the night.




Shall we go anyway? ¿Vamos de todos modos?

Shall we look it up on internet?

Shall we have dinner out tonight?

Shall we tell him what happened?

Shall we open it now or later?

Shall we sell it?

Shall we take the car?

Shall we think about it in another time?

Shall we rent a DVD tonight?

Shall we cancel the meeting?

Shall we try?

Shall we have a go? ¿Lo intentamos?




We’ve already talk about the verb “shall” auxiliary verb shall. We use it when we ask, if we can do something in a very polite way, when we expect the other person to say; yes: Shall I open the window? Shall I put the table?

Now, today we’re going to continue looking at this verb but in conjunction with questions words such as; what, where, when. For example:

What shall we do? We’d be the same; ¿Qué hacemos? For example:

When you’re with a group of friends and you don’t know what to do, and you ask the rest of them suggestion; what shall we do? Where shall we go?

We tent to use “shall” in this form with the question word, exclusively in the first person plural:

What shall we? Where shall we? When shall we? Let’s look at some examples then:


Who shall we call?

Where shall we go?

What shall we do?

When shall we eat?

How shall we get there? ¿Cómo vamos a allí (llegar)?

Who shall we invite to the party?

What shall we watch? ¿Qué vemos (en la tele)?

Where shall we hold the meeting? ¿Dónde celebramos la reunion?

Celebrar una reunión; requiere el uso del verbo “to hold”

En inglés la única parte de una reunión que se celebra con el verbo “to celebrate”, es cuando se acaba.


What time shall we meet up? ¿A qué hora quedamos?

What time shall we aim to finish? ¿Para qué hora intentamos terminar?



A punto de

WE ARE ABOUT TO DO SOMETHING. (Estamos a punto de hacer algo)

The train is about to leave.

The building’s about to collapse

The Company’s about to announce record profits

I’m about to move my count to another branch.

They’re about to sell their house.

She was about to give up smoking, when she met Dave.

She was about to leave the building when the explosion took place.

It was about to rain when we left.

They were about to start the meeting when they realize the problem.



A couple of days ago we sold our tractor.

A couple of days ago she said she lived in Spain.

A couple of days ago I sold all my shares. 

A couple of days ago they sold all their paintings.



TO + SUBJUNTIVE (we never, say “that”)

They want to come. Quieren que venga o quieren que yo venga; so, we would say:

They want me to come.

If you wanted to say; querían que yo vinera: becomes;            

They wanted me to come.

She wants him to call her.                                     

He wants us to be happy.

I want Spain to prosper.                                   

We want you to attend.                                        

I wanted it to rain.

Do they want me to be on time? 

We never wanted you to be the candidate.

He wants them to pay a higher price.

They want the swimming pool to be built in the middle of the garden. Quieren que…

When do you want the plumber to go? Cuándo quieres que…



1/2 one half is the same as 50%fifty percent.

1/4 one-fourth is the same as 20% twenty-five percent.

1/3 one third is the same as 33.3% thirty-three point three percent.

2/3 two thirds is the same as 66.7% sixty-six point seven percent.

1/10 one tenth is the same as 10% ten percent.

1/8 one eighth is the same as 12.5% twelve point five percent.

7/8 seven eighths is the same as 87% eighty-seven point seven percent.

2/5 two fifths is the same as 40% forty percent.

4/5 four fifths is the same as 80% eighty percent.



We’re going to look now at, a clear different between when we use “will” and when we use “going to”.

When we think about something for a while and then we decide what we are going to do, we use "Going to" however when we make end on the spot decision we use "Will".


I’m going to call for a pizza.        

I’ll have some.        

I’m going to make some tea.                        

I’ll have one.      

I’m going to wash up.                     

I’ll give you a hand.

I’m going to take the dog out for a walk.

I’ll come.

I’m going to mow the lawn.

No, I’ll do it.

I’ll be back at ten.                                                                  

I’ll see you on Monday then.

But the way, we don’t say: we’ll see itch other, when we say good bye to someone. We say; I’ll see you.                                            

I’ll talk to you at the trade fair.                                    

I’ll see you later.                                                             

I’ll be there around six.                                                               

Don’t worry I’ll lock up.                                                             

I’ll pick you up, outside the theatre.                           

Go to bed! I’ll clear the table.                                                              

We won´t be there until three o’clock.                            

I’ll phone you from the airport.



I was going to tell you but it was never the right time. …pero no encontraba el momento oportuno.


I was going to call you but I didn’t have any coverage. …cobertura

She was going to come with us but she missed her train.

I thought it was going to be more difficult than it actually was. …en realidad era.

I thought they were going to be angrier than they actually were.

I thought she was going to be prettier than she actually was.

I told you it was going to rain.

I told you it was going to be difficult.

They were going to go to the Police when they discovered the truth.

Another example is; I was going to do this until the circumstances change.

He was going to spend three weeks in the Alps until he had that accident.

Another example of when we use; I was going to, is when we pretext are innocents, in English we say honestly.

I was going to tell you, honestly!

I was going to phone you, honestly!

I was going to speak to the builder, honestly!

I was going to finish it, honestly!



“Going to” muchos nativos convierten esta expresión en “Gonna”


I’m going to go. I’m going to sing. I’m going to talk. She’s going to call. They’re going to come. You’re going to see. I’m going to, you’re going to, he’s going to, we’re going to, they’re going to. I’m going to look.

I’m going become in; I’m not going, you’re not going, He’s not going. They’re not going to come. They aren’t going to come. He’s not going to talk. He isn’t going to talk. They’re not going to play. You’re not going to win. He’s not going to look. They’re not going to go. I’m going…; am I going…? you’re going; are you going…? He’s going…; is he going…? Is he going to go? Is he going to sing? Is she going to start? Are you going to love? Are we going to eat? Is it going to rain? Are they going to have breakfast? Am I going to see you? Is he going to leave? Are you going to run? Are we going to sleep?



Jessica has a lot of dogs. Paul ate a lot of ice-cream at the party. Jackie has a lot of money. There aren’t many clouds in the sky today. The English, as a rule, don’t speak many foreign languages. Is there much money left, in your account by the end of the month!

There aren’t many skyscrapers in Madrid. There aren’t many people here. Did you have many questions?


Solo lo empleamos cuando estamos hablando en negativo o en interrogativo.

Cuando hablamos en afirmativo; por ejemplo, tengo mucho dinero, sería; I have a lot of money.

Y sólo empleamos “much” hablando de sustantivos incontables;

There isn’t much water in Spain.

Nick doesn’t have much wine.

Eric’s brother doesn’t have much money.

People don’t have much work.

Do you know much about music?

When they have much food.

Do they have much money?


Okay. Let’s beginning.

La expresión “A lot of” que podemos emplear en todos los casos.

Cuando a esta expresión no le sigue un sustantivo no incluimos la preposición “of”


I have a lot of books.

I do a lot of sport. (En inglés no practicamos deporte sino que lo hacemos o lo jugamos)

I sleep a lot.

I don’t have a lot of time.

I don’t eat a lot of bread.

Do they have a lot of beer? ¿Tienen mucha cerveza?

Do they buy a lot of cars?




This is when somebody says something and then we report what they said to someone else.

I like chocolate.

Maria said she liked chocolate. The word “That” is optional.

THE PAST BECOMES IN THE PAST PERFECT (Plusperf. o antecopretérito del español).

My sister saw the accident.

Jose said her sister has seen the accident.

I looked for it everywhere

Maria said she had looked for it everywhere.


I’ve nearly finished my homework. Casi he finalizado mis deberes

Early: Temprano.

Pablo said he had nearly finished his homework.

I’ve read the novel before.

Pablo said she had read the novel before.

I haven’t seen him today.

José said he hadn’t seen him today.

They haven’t spoken to the supplier.

Pablo said they hadn’t spoken to the supplier.


I’ll see him tomorrow.

José said he would see him tomorrow.

My husband will be there.

Maria said her husband would be there.


I’m meeting my friend next week. Me voy a encontrar con mi amigo

He said; he was meeting his friend next week. Él se iba a encotrar con su amigo…

I’m flying to New York next week. Voy a volar a…

Jose said he was flying to New York next week. …que volaría…          

My cat is having kittens. Mi gata va a tener gatitos

Miguel said his cat was having kittens. Miguel dijo que su gata iba a tener gatitos



To keep + another verb + ing

Keep going! You’re nearly there! ¡ya casi estás!

You must Keep trying you’ll get a job one day.

Keep looking! It won’t jump out at you! ¡No va a venir a ti!

Keep trying! You’ll get through eventually. Sigue intentándolo! Al final, te cogerán la llamada

IN NEGATIVE MEANS; stop doing something. (parar o dejar de hacer algo).

Don’t keep asking stupid questions.

Don’t keep taking your shoes off! -To take off.

Don’t keep spending your pocket money on sweets.

Please, don’t keep kicking the back of my seat!

IN AFFIRMATIVE MEANS; seguir o NO DEJAR de hacer algo.

My neighbour keeps going on about her grandchildren.

My dentist keeps cancelling my appointment.

When I was Young my brother keeps hitting me.

My boss keeps giving me too much work.

There are basically two possibilities: We can say; to keep doing something or to keep on doing something. Really doesn't matter both are equally common.

Let’s carry on:

He keeps annoying me with his problems. 

Despite my protests, he keeps on playing his music loud.

My printer keeps jamming. 

My car keeps on stalling. Mi coche no deja griparse.




How long was….?

Hitler was in power from 1933 to 1945, for 12 years.


How long has …been...? 

G.W.B. has been president of the U.S. since 2001, for seven years.

The United States has been a country since 1776, for 231 years.



Today we’re going to look at; how we form the comparative in English, all depend whether we’re talking about a long adjective or a short adjective.


John is taller than Fred. I’m fatter than my brother.

I want to introduce the adjective TIDY. Tidy who has two syllables, but because it ending in a “y” we always add “er” the unique different here is we change the “y” for “i” “y se pronuncia; taidia” 

Sandra is happier than George. You’re luckier.

QUIET: “Quieter” is an exception, it has two syllables.

Your house is quieter than mine. Tu casa es más tranquila que la mía.


This is simpler than I thought.


Now, we going to look at some longer adjectives, we have to precede the adjective with the word “more”.

Gary is more understanding than Paula.  

I’m more tired than I thought. 

COMPARATIVES (de good) BETTER – (de bad) WORSE.

My team is worse than yours.

My new mobile is better than the old one.

My son is better at mathematics than I am.



It’s harder and harder to find a cheap flat nowadays.

It’s more and more difficult to find a cheap flat nowadays.

He is becoming stronger and stronger.

It’s becoming more and more important to learn English.

I feel better and better. Thank you.




He’s as tall as my brother.

She’s as intelligent as I am.

I’m as interested in this as you are.

She’s as strange as her mother was. 

My new boss is as demanding as my previous one.   …anterior

This book isn’t as enjoyable as the last one I read. …último

I’m not as enthusiastic about this product as I usually am. Or Exciting. …suelo estar

This year the weather isn’t as good as last year.

Be careful because we don’t usually use the verb “to be” in the present continuous; we don’t say     the weather isn’t being as good. 

The President’s speech wasn’t as boring as it was last year.

This pasta isn’t as tasty as the rice you cooked yesterday.

It’s not as cold as I thought it would be. No hace…

The rain isn’t as heavy as they said it would be on the weather forecast. …que sería en la previsión del tiempo


I don’t speak English as fluently as my mother-in-law. con tanta soltura como


I don’t take as much sugar in my coffee as my mother.

I don’t have as much time as you do. No dispongo


I don’t have as many books as Paco.

I don’t speak as many languages as Silvia.

In my company, there are as many women as men.

Vultures; buitres




We now going to look at two different ways of saying the same thing, for example; I don’t have as much money as my boss or I have less money as my boss. We’re talking about uncountable nouns.

What we’re gonna do then, is the following; I’m gonna read you a sentences in English with less than and I like you to say exactly the same thing but using the negative; not as much as.


I eat less food than I used to.

I don’t eat as much food as I used to.

I want you to cut less hair than the last time.

I don’t want you to cut as much hair as the last time.

Developing countries cause less pollution than undeveloped ones.

Developing countries don’t cause as much pollution as undeveloped ones.

There isn’t as much nitrogen as oxygen in the air.

There is less nitrogen than oxygen in the air.

You don’t do as much homework as you should.

You do less homework than you should.

Don’t add as much salt as pepper!

Add less salt than pepper!



No tanto cómo-Menos que (COUNTABLE NOUNS)

Last time we looked at “not as much as with uncountable nouns” and we played it off against “less” synonymous; I don’t have as much money as he does or I have less money than he does. Today we’re going to look at the equivalent structure for countable nouns; I don’t have as many books as he does or I have fewer books than he does.

So, we start for giving you examples with “fewer” and I want you to express exactly the same thing with “as many as”, of course using the negative of the verb. For example:

We saw fewer lions than zebras on the safari. We’d be;

We didn’t see as many lions as zebras on the safari.

There are fewer cars in Madrid than Los Angeles.

There aren’t as many cars in Madrid as Los Angeles.

She buys fewer DVDs than CDs.

She doesn’t buy as many DVDs as CDs.

There are fewer strings on a violin than a guitar.

There aren’t as many strings on a violin as a guitar.

He’s had fewer girlfriends than his brother has.

He hasn’t had as many girlfriends as his brother has.

They’re playing fewer concerts than “they did” last year. “optionals”

They aren’t playing as many concerts as “they did” last year.

She tells fewer lies than you do.

She doesn’t tell as many lies as you do.

Wellington won fewer battles than Napoleon did.

Wellington didn’t win as many battles as Napoleon did.

Now, we’ll do it exactly the other way round. I’ll give you an example in the negative with “as many as” and I want you to reproduce the same thing using “fewer than”.

I didn’t drink as many beers as you did at the party.

I drank fewer beers than you did at the party.

Why aren’t there as many women as there are men in the army?

Why are there fewer women than men in the army?

She doesn’t make as many mistakes as you do.

She makes fewer mistakes than you do.

They didn’t find as many mushrooms as they did last time.

They found fewer mushrooms than they did last time.

I don’t read as many books as I do comics.

I read fewer books than I do comics.

There aren’t as many languages in Europe as there are in India.

There are fewer languages in Europe than there are in India.

Why are there never as many women as there are men in a disco?

Why are there always fewer women than there are men in a disco?




Más y Menos


You make more mistakes than your sister when you speak quickly.

I should eat more fruit than I do.


There’s less noise in the country than in cities.

You should drink less alcohol than you do.

I want less chicken than on my plate.

She spends less time studying than her brother. Pasa

I listen to less music now than I did, when I was at the university.


A fly has fewer legs than a spider.

There are fewer women than man in Alaska.

Fewer people died in the First World War than in the Second.

I saw fewer films this year than last year.

February has fewer days than any other month.

There are fewer players in a basketball team than a football team.

Adults need fewer hours of sleep than babies.

Why are there fewer women than men in politics?

More has fewer letters than fewer.

I’ve visited fewer countries than an air stewardess. Azafata de vuelo.

Fewer girls study Engineering than boys.

A smile requires a fewer muscles than a frown.




Do you know how to drive?

She never knew how to cook very well.

I want to know how to use this computer better.

He doesn’t know how to get on with people. To treat

She knows how to play the piano.

She always knew how to charm the men. Hechizar,encandilar

They’ll know how to market it.

He didn’t know how to deal with the new boss.

He only knew how to do it because I told him. Sólo sabía hacerlo…le dije cómo

We need to know how the new system works.

I didn’t know how to tie my shoelaces until I was 6.

I know how to impress her.

He knows how to sell ice to Eskimos.

We need to hire someone with know-how in the area of exports. Conocimientos.



We’ll teach you how to speak English.

I was unable to teach you how to dance. Fui incapaz…

What’s the best way to teach someone how to learn a language?

I’m not going to teach you how to swear. …a maldecir

He taught me how to play the flute.

I’d like you to teach me how to drive. Me gustaría que me enseñaras a ….

She taught me how to love again. …de nuevo

I’ll teach you how to stop speaking such rubbish. To speak or to talk rubbish, is the same as; hablar tonterías.




You can of course say; I’m learning speak English or I learn how to speak English.

Where did you learn how to do that?

I learnt how to cook when I was at university



My grandmother was born in the 20s, during the war.

Where was Beethoven born?

Beethoven was born in 1770.




How's tricks? Colloquial; how are you?

What´s up? Colloquial; What up? -Nothing.

Witch! Good! Basic structure: There plus to be

There is one. -There are two. Are/is there + substantive?


There may be (puede que haya + sustantivo). May there be + substantive?

There could be (podría haber + sustantivo). Could there be + substantive?


There could have been (podría haber habido).

There must be (debe de haber).

There should be (debería de haber). Should there be?

There should have been (debería haber habido).

 Let there be light. Hágase la luz.

There have to be.  Do/Does there have to be? Tiene que haber

There would be. Habría

There would’ve been. Habría habido


There are several problems with the order.

Good, just a little comment about the PREFIX “MIS” that usually means “MAL”. Use it in verbs such as: Misbehave; which is comportarse mal, or to mismanage; hacer las gestiones mal.

To mislead; engañar, to misinterpret; mal interpretar, to misjudge; mal juzgar, to mistreat;  mal tratar.

Let’s carry on!

There seems to be one hiding in the closet. Parece que haya

There may be a reason for it. Puede que haya                                                    

There could have been a fight in the kitchen. Podría haber habido                       

There should have been someone here to stop it.             

There isn’t a bar in this village, and there aren’t any shops either.

There weren’t many people here when I arrived. <ueont> No había

There isn’t going to be any drink at the party. Va haber

There aren’t going to be any snacks. Va haber

There hasn’t been any news from them.

There haven’t been any parties here for years. No ha habido ningún…durante..

There shouldn’t be any problems. No debería haber

There doesn’t seem to be a solution. No parece que haya…                                         

There wouldn´t be any complaints, if Pepe were here. No habría               

There wouldn’t have been any complaints if you had cancelled this party. No hubiese habido…


Some examples now in the interrogative which of course the most difficult form:

Were there other people listening?                         

Is there going to be a court case? Is there gonna be a court case? …juicio?

Have there been any injuries? heridos

Do there have to be people dancing during the concert? Tiene que haber…?

Could there be a mistake in the report?                            

Should there be more questions?

There were loads of people at the party. Había un motón…

Loads of; stacks of, piles of, lots of, heaps of, bags of…

There was a lack of interest in this proposal. Hubo falta de…

There was only one way to deal with that matter.

Tan sólo había una manera de solucionar ese asunto.(lidiar con ese asunto

There were many questions that remained unanswered….que quedaron sin resolver

There was a sense of disappointment with his new album….una sensación de decepción…

There was a riot after the match. Hubo disturbios después del partido<rai-at>


Some examples now in the negative then:

There wasn’t anyone.

There weren’t many good reasons to go there. Muchas buenas razones…

There wasn´t enough time to visit all the museums.

There weren’t any survivors in the plane crash. En el accidente de avión

There wasn’t a shower in my hotel room.

There weren’t any mistakes in the letter.


Some examples now in the negative then:

When was a prison in that street?

Why were there so many people at the demonstration?

Was there any excuse for you behavior?

Were there many traffic accidents during the bank holiday weekend? …el puente del fin de semana. Or the long weekend


Was there anyone working in the office at the weekend?



Do you like chips? Yes, I do.

Can you play tennis? Yes, I can.

Do you like courgettes? Yes, I do.

Does he manage to get by on that salary? ¿Consigue apañárselas con ese sueldo?

Do they walk to work every day? Yes, they do.

Did they spend all their pocket money on sweets? Yes, they did.

Did you see the almond blossom? …el almendro en flor? Yes, I did.


Let’s look at some auxiliary verb now:

Can you make it to the party?  Yes, I can.

Should I let her know beforehand? (in advance). Yes, I should.

Will they ever tie the knot? (To get married). Yes, they will.

Could you find one in your size? Yes, I could.

Could you lend me a tenner? No, I could.

Do you do press ups every day? No, I don’t.

We’ll do some examples now, in the interrogative:

Do you do press-ups every day? No, I don’t.

Does he always cut himself shaving? No, he doesn’t. 

Did the train get stuck in a snow-drift? No, it didn’t.

Do they plough the fields in the month of May? No, they don’t.

Did she get birth in the taxi on the way to the hospital?

Will they make it to the summit without oxygen? No, they won’t. (alcanzarán)

Can she be trusted with such demanding responsibilities? No, she can’t.

¿Puede ser de confianza con responsabilidades tan exigentes?


Should he be ruled out for cheating? Yes, he should. ¿Debería…excluido por tramposo?

Could you shuffle the cards with your eyes closed? No, I couldn’t.

Will he sell the quarry when he retired? Yes, he will.

Are most university students overdrawn? Yes, they are.

Sin recursos (sobrestirado); overstretched


Is Andorra far from Albacete? Yes it is.

Are you half-English half-Italian? No, I’m not.

Was it further than you thought? Yes it was.

Were there many trumps at the convention? No, there weren’t.

Is he doing up his lounge? Yes, he is.  ¿Está reformando su salón?

Was the match called off on account of the weather? Yes, it was. …suspendido…a causa

Are you going to make it up with him? Yes, I am. …hacer las paces.

Were they eating their main course when the police burst in? Yes, they were.

The main course; el plato principal o primer plato.

To burst in means; irrumpir.


Was Pope John Paul II Catholic? Yes, he was.

Were the English and the Spanish enemies in the past? Yes, they were.

Inglés y español; no tienen plural en inglés.



Nuestro pretérito perfecto compuesto del español

Have you been to England? Yes, I have

What do we do it? Repeat the subject and the auxiliary verb have. Of course in the 3rd person; has he been to England? Yes, he has.

Have you ever been to Germany? Yes, I have.

Have we been there, dear? Yes I have.

Have they told you the news? Yes, they have.

Has he asked her for it yet? Yes, he has.

Has she ever beaten her sister at tennis? Yes, she has.

Have you ever eaten octopus Galician style? Yes, I have.

Has she ever been to Mars? No, he hasn’t.

Have you ever spoken to the mayor of New York? No, I haven’t.

Has she ever spent two million euros on a dress? No, she hasn’t.

Have they finished yet? Yes, they have

Has Gordon bought the tickets? Yes, he has

Have you seen your Canadian uncle recently? No, I haven’t.

Have you seen Gerry? Yes, I have

Has Paul eaten there before? Yes, he has.

Have you finished that novel you were reading? Yes, I have

Have they married before? Yes, they have.

Have you bought a new car? No, I haven’t.

Has the factory closed down? Yes, it has

To close down; cierre definitive.



Do you have any friends? Yes, I do.

Do you have any water? Yes, I do.

Do I have any problems? No, you don’t.

Do you have any pens? Yes, I do.

Do you have any children? No, I don’t.

Do you have any ices for my drink? No, I don’t.

Do you have a bicycle? Yes, I do.

Do you have a dog? No, I don’t.

Do you have a million dollars? No, I don’t.

Do you have a house in Finland? No, I don’t.

Do you have an office in Poland? No, I don’t.

Do you have two, Roll Royce? No, I don’t.

Do you have an elephant in your garage? No, I don’t.

Do I have a meeting tomorrow? Yes, you do.

Do I have a car? No, you don’t.

Do I have a house in Spain? Yes, you do.

Do I have two wives? No, you don’t

Do I have ten cats? No, you don’t

Do I have a green bicycle? No, you don’t

Do I have a telephone in my office? Yes, you do.

Do I have a table in your room? Yes, you do.

Do you have a million dollars in your briefcase? No, I don’t

Do I have an envelope in my table? No, you don’t

Do you have a picture on your wall? Yes, I do.

Does she have a lighter? Yes, she does.

Do you have a light? Yes, I do.

Does your mother have a car? Yes, she does.

Does your uncle have a house in Spain? Yes, she does.

Does the king of Spain have two wives? No he doesn’t.

Does your grandmother have ten cats? No, she doesn’t.

Does Spain have a lot of sun? Of course, it does.

Does the shop have any windows? Yes, it does.



“To feel like”; its substantive “funcy”

I feel like eating an apple. I fansy an apple

I don’t feel like doing it at all.  

I don´t feel like exercising.

I don´t feel like quitting smoking or giving up smoking.

Do you feel like eating Chinese food for lunch?

I don’t feel like trying to improve the situation.

Do you feel like going for a swim with me?

I feel like going to France this weekend.

I don’t feel like drinking any more beer because I’m getting fat. Engordando.

Do you feel like having water instead of wine?


I don’t really feel like fish to night. De verdad no me apetece…

I felt like a change. Me apetecía un cambio

Do you feel like having a better time?

Get lost! (Reflexive verb); get married, etc., etc.,

If one could recapture one's lost youth!



I’m a man. I’m a woman. I’m single. I’m in the center of Spain, I’m in the center of Spain too.

I’m in Europe, I’m in Europe too, and what about you? I’m in the south of Europe, I’m in the south of Europe. You’re in Madrid, You’re in Madrid too. You’re in the center of Spain too. You’re in the big country. You’re in Europe. You’re in the south of Europe. You’re a woman, you’re a man. You’re single. I’m not French. I’m not French either. I’m not American. I’m not American either. I’m not Italian, I’m not Italian either. I'm not Scottish. I'm not Chinese.

I’m not Russian. You’re not in south of Italy. You’re not in France. You’re not in small city. You’re not German. You’re not Dutch. Ask me if I’m in Madrid. Are you in Madrid? Ask me if I’m in the north of Spain. Are you in the north of Spain? Ask me if I’m in the south of Spain.  Ask me if I’m in the west of Spain. Ask me if I’m in the east of Spain. Ask me if I’m in the center of Spain. Ask me if I’m single. Ask me if I’m married.

The people in Spain are Spanish, in England are English, in France are French, in Germany are German, in Italy are Italian, in Russia are Russian, in China are Chinese. The people in Japan are Japanese, in The United States are American. The people in Norway are Norwegian, in Sweden are Swedish, In Ireland are Irish, in Finland are Finish, in Scotland are Scottish, in Denmark are Danish. The people in Greek are Greeks. The people in Austria are Austrian. Are the people in Australia Australians?



“If” + el presente simple + el contexto de futuro con “will”

The first conditional is the one we use when we are making a hypothesis about the future, among what happen if that hypothesis comes true.

If I finish work early this evening I’ll go to the supermarket.


Let’s try the other way round:

I’ll give you a hand if you ask me to.

If you don´t arrive on time we won’t go.

If she’s not excited about the project she won’t invest her money.

If there aren’t too many people it won’t take us long.

We won’t get wet if we don’t go out.

We won’t to achieve anything if we don’t make a big effort.

She won’t to tell you if she doesn’t know anything.

It won’t hurt if you are under an anesthetic.

To complain: Quejar

Complaint: Queja

If Jenny comes, will you be pleased or happy?

If there’s no ace, will you have a beer? 

If they knock down the building, will you celebrate? Si derrumban

Will you sell more, if you organize a campaign on T.V.?<organaisi> <campein>

Will you turn off the T.V. if I turn it on?

Will you take me if I don’t have a car?

Will you bring it to me, if I can’t pick it up?



Present imaginary (if) + imaginary future (would)

If I worked less I would do more sport.

If I earned more money I would buy a more powerful car.

Powerful is “potente” as well as “poderoso”

I would eat more if I were hungry.

THE VERB TO BE IS AN EXCEPTION IN THE SECOND CONDITIONAL; we usually say “were” for every single grammatical person; if I were, if you were, if he were, if she were, if they were.

He would eat more if he were hungry.

The car would be worth more, if it were newer.

She would feel better, if she ate more healthily.

If I didn’t have so many debts, I would spend more money.

If I weren’t fat, I wouldn’t be on a diet.

He wouldn’t be the champion, if he weren’t the best.

I wouldn’t wear it, if it didn’t fit me. No me lo pondría si no me cupiera.

It wouldn’t take so long, if she took the train. No tardaría tanto si cogiera el tren

If you drank three liters of water a day, would you feel better?

If she were your wife, would you be happy?

If you won the lottery, would you buy a yacht?

If you got married again, who would you marry?

If you could choose, where would you live?

If it were cold, would you wear a scarf?

Would you shout it, if you were afraid?




Now, we’re going to look at the third conditional:

If I had known I would have told you.

We’re talking about the past we use the past of the past or the past perfect. The past of “would” is “would have”. Okay-dokey; bueno vale.

Let’s go with a few examples then:

If my cat had disappeared I would’ve phoned you.

If my cat had disappeared I would’ve gone to the neighbours’ house to look for it.

If you had told me I would’ve known.

Let’s try now looking at a few examples in which we invert the two clauses.

This time we’re not going to start with the “if” clause.

She would’ve agreed if you had insisted.

You would’ve got the job if you had studied English properly. …en serio.

I would’ve bought it if I had some money on me. …dinero consigo

Let’s look at some examples in the negative now:

I wouldn’t have remembered if you hadn’t reminded me. Acordado de mí. (recordar algo a alguien)

She wouldn’t have got the job if she hadn’t passed the English exam.

I wouldn’t have left a tip if the service had been bad. Propina

Let’s turn the two phrases round and I start with some examples with “if”:

If it had snowed, I wouldn’t have gone by car. No hubiésemos ido en coche

If it had been more expensive, I wouldn’t have bought it.

If she had been faithful, he wouldn’t have left her….fiel…

Faith (fe).

Some examples now, in the interrogative:

Would you have signed the contract if you had read the small print? …la letra pequeña.

Would they have won if they had trained harder?

If you had made an effort, would you have won?

If she had read the book, would she have known the answer?

If you had played, would your team have won?



We’re going to look now at a different way of forming the third conditional. This is when we're talking about something hypothetical in the past and its hypothetical consequences. E.g. If I had known I would have told you.

If I had known is the normal way to say that, but we can also say the same thing like this; had I known, I would have told you. If I had been or had I been. If I had seen or had I seen.


De hecho se suele emplear en la primera persona.


I’m gonna give you then some examples in English expression the third conditional and I want you to say exactly the same thing using “had I”. For example:

If I had known, I wouldn’t have gone.

Had I known, I wouldn’t have gone.

If I had been there, things would have been different.

Had I been there, things would have been different.

What will we do here? Emphasize the participle; had I been there, had I known, had I said, had I shopped, had I stopped.


If I had been able to speak to her before, she would have reacted differently.

Had I been able to speak to her before, she would have reacted differently.

If I had given up before, I wouldn’t have had all these problems.

Had I given up before, I wouldn’t have had all these problems.

If I had said no, none of this would have happened.

Had I said no, none of this would have happened.

If I had had time, I would have called in on my great aunt.

Had I had time, I would have called in on my great aunt.

To call in on someone means; to visit someone, to pay someone a visit unexpectedly without necessarily having arrange anything beforehand.

También podemos decir: To drop by on someone, to pop in and see someone.

Let’s have very quickly look then at a few examples with different subjects as I said before; we usually express this form “had I” or “had” plus the subject “we” in the first person.

We’re gonna look at a couple when it’s not the case:  

If it had rained, we would have got soaked.

Had it rained, we would have got soaked.

If they had been on time, we wouldn’t have missed the ferry.

Had they been on time, we wouldn’t have missed the ferry.

If it had mattered, you would have known about it.

Had it mattered, you would have known about it. Si algo hubiera pasado, te habrías preocupado.




I’m okay, a little bit on edge. A little bit; como algo nervioso.

Why? Because, we’re going to look at something which is extremely complex. Another worry because if you haven't got to grips with the basic three conditionals. I would strongly advise you to skip this track.


Let’s go then and over review, first in the future and its consequence in the future. Vayamos entonces y sobre la revisión, primero en el futuro y su consecuencia en el futuro.


The first conditional:

If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella.


The second conditional: Condition in the present and its consequence in the present.

If it rains every day I always take my umbrella.


The third conditional: A condition in the past and its consequence in the past.

If it had rained yesterday I would have taken my umbrella.


But today we`re going to look at something which a little more complex and I said we're gonna look at mixed conditionals.


The condition is from the present conditional and the consequence is from the past conditional.


If I knew her, I would have invited her to the party. Si la conociera (ahora)…

Okay, let’s look at another example:

If I had more experience, I would have got the job. Si tuviera (ahora)…

If I spoke fluent English, they would have promoted last year or in passive voice;

If I spoke fluent English, I would have been promoted last year. …Si hablara un inglés fluido, me habrían ascendido el año pasado.


If my car were a four by four, it wouldn’t have got stuck in the mud.

Si mi coche fuera un 4x4, no se hubiera atascado en el barro.


If the weather were good in England, I wouldn’t have come to live in Spain.

If cigarette weren’t so expensive, I wouldn’t have given up smoking.

If I had more free time, I would have gone to the wedding. Si tuviera…

Would you have jumped if you were twenty years younger? ¿Habrías saltado si tuvieras 30 años menos?


If I were a politician I wouldn’t have said that. Si fuese un politico…


Now let’s look at the same thing but the other way round that’s to say; a condition in the past and its consequence in the present.

So what do we do? We simply take the structure from the condition of the past conditional; if I have known, if I had gone, if I had seen, and the consequence or result clause from the present condition; I wouldn’t do, I wouldn’t go, I wouldn’t be.

For example:

If I had been born in Poland, I would speak fluent Polish. Si hubiese nacido…

If you had cleaned your shoes with polish last night, you would look more formal. Si hubieses limpiado…con abrillantador…parecerías…

Okay, we have two words here which spelt the same, “Poulish” la nacionalidad and “polish”

Abrillantador, but of course the pronouns differently.


I wouldn’t smoke today if I had been operated on a month ago. No fumaría…si hubiese sido operado hace un mes

To be operated on: Ser operado


I would try to stay calm if I had been bitten by a snake. Intentaría mantener la calma si fuese mordido por…


If Napoleon hadn’t escaped from the isle of Elba, the Duke of Wellington wouldn’t be so famous nowadays.

If my ex-boss hadn’t joined the company I wouldn’t be Managing Director today.

Si mi exjefe no hubiese entrado en la empresa, yo no sería director general hoy.