Even though: A pesar, a sabiendas; con conocimiento de causa.

Even if: Aunque; sin conocimiento de causa “haga lo que haga”).


Okay, so in English when you know that something’s happening and despite that you’re gonna do whatever you want to do we say; even though. I’ll go out even though it’s raining.

When you're not really sure something's happening or not, but you're gonna do whatever you want to do we say; even if. I’ll go out even if it’s raining.



Even though I don’t like the way she cooks I still eat dinner at her house twice a week.

Even though I eat dinner with her twice a week, I still feel hungry when I get home. …llego a casa.

Even though their kids are nice to me, I still hate them. A pesar de que…


EVEN IF + SUBJUNCTIVE. Aunque (lo hago de todas formas); obstinato, any way.

Even if they cancel the conference, I still go to Venice. Aunque cancelen la conferencia, mantengo ir a Venecia


Even if I study every day for three months, I won’t become fluent in English by January. No conseguiré fluidez con el ingles...(No hablaré ingles...)


Even if they win the battle they won’t win the war.

I won’t stop doing it, even if you threaten to leave me.

He’ll leave the company even if you offer him a pay rise.

Aunque le ofrezcas una subida de sueldo.


They’ll buy the product even if it’s expensive.


'EVEN' which of course our word for 'INCLUSO'. The important thing here is to concentrate on where we place the word 'even', it always goes before non auxiliary verbs: I even speak; I even drive.

John speaks many languages. He even speaks Polish….incluso habla polaco

He has a huge collection of painting. He even owns a Picasso.


He keeps all sorts of reptiles. He even keeps snakes. Tiene todo tipo(species).


Now we going to look at some examples using auxiliary verbs, of course including the verb 'To be' which always behaves like an auxiliary verb: 'Even' in this case goes after the auxiliary verb.

I have eaten all kinds of fish. I have even eaten shark. 'Even' goes after the auxiliary verb 'have'; I've even eaten; I've even done; I've even been; I've even spoken

She can even play the bagpipes.

He’s even allergic to chocolate.

It’s even raining in Sevilla. We can't say it's raining even in Sevilla.


I MIGHT EVEN. Igual incluso

I might even do it. – I might even speak it. – I might even tell her.

I might even stay at home.


If we want to emphasize another aspect of the sentences for example the subject, we always places the word 'even' before we want to emphasize, for example:

I’m a disaster in the kitchen but even I can cook an omelette

Emily is anti-social but even she enjoyed herself. Se lo pasó bien.

Paul was a terrible student but even he managed to pass.

My wife and I don’t go to the cinema often but even we went to see that film.


Emphasize another aspect of the sentences and again we place 'even' just before what we want emphasize.

It often snows in the mountains even in May.

My older brother is childish even now. Mi hermano mayor es infantil

I ate everything on the plates, even the skin.

We invited the whole family even my strange cousin.

Even my car managed to get to the top of the mountain.


Let's look at the opposite 'not even', so we always say; I don't even; I'm not even; I can't even;

I wouldn't even try.

NOT EVEN. Ni siquiera

Let's look at the opposite. So we always say; I don't even, I'm not even, I can't even, I wouldn't even try, We've not even.

Not even I could do that.

I don’t like soft drinks not even Coca-Cola, not even when I was young.

Nobody is more diplomatic than the Japanese not even the English.

I don’t have any money left for nothing, not even a coffee. No me queda



I couldn’t go because of the rain. On account of/due to the…(X)

I couldn’t go because it was raining. The same as; Due to the fact that.../on account of the fact that (XQ)

I couldn’t see because of the mist. On account of (X)

I couldn’t see because it was misty.(XQ)

I couldn’t run because of my leg. On account of (X)

I couldn’t run because I have a bad leg.(XQ)

I’ve arrived late because of the traffic. On account of (X)

I’ve arrived late because there was a lot of traffic. (XQ)


The match was called off because the weather was bad. (XQ)

The match was called off because of the bad weather. On account of (X)

He didn’t make a good impression because his shoes were dirty.(XQ)

He didn’t make a good impression because of his shoes. On account of (X)

In English by the way we don´t ever say 'To cause a good impression'. We make a good impression on somebody.

I didn’t like the house because it had awful curtains. (XQ)

I didn’t like the house because of the curtains. On account of (X)

He had a heart attack because he was stress. (XQ)

He had a heart attack because of the stress. On account of (X)


I’ve arrived late due to the fact that there was a delay. (XQ)

I’ve arrived late due to the delay. (X)

I lent him the money due to the fact that he was in a desperate situation.(XQ)

I lent him the money due to his desperate situation. (X)

The ice cream melted due to heat. (X)

The ice cream melted due to the fact that it was hot. (XQ)

We couldn’t watch television due to the power cut. Apagón. (X)

We couldn’t watch television due to the fact that there was a power cut. (XQ)



We couldn’t go on account of the fact that there was a demonstration. (XQ)

We couldn’t go on account of the demonstration. (X)

They abandoned the race on account of the fact that they were exhausted.(XQ)


They abandoned the race on account of the exhaustion. (X)

Jane refused to compromise on account of her stubbornness. (X)

Jane renegó (rehusó) ...debido a su obstinación

Jane refused to compromise on account of the fact that she was extremely stubborn (obstinate). (XQ)


TO LAST. Durar

Lots of people get the verb "to last and to take" mixed up; mucha gente se confunde con estos dos verbos.

He lasted a long time in that job. Duró mucho

It doesn’t last as long as you think. tanto tiempo cómo

Process won’t last that long. tanto

The operation didn’t last long. duró mucho

The paint lasted a long time. mucho

Did you last longer with this girlfriend than the other one?¿Duraste más con

Did the Second World War last longer than the first? Duró más

How long did their relationship last? relación



A very warm welcome. Today we’re going to look at a way of polishing your English. Making you're English sound even more natural, and we're gonna concentrate on the following expression: The last time I went to Vigo was three months ago, which is perfectly correct. Anny is what almost all my Spanish students did before I started pulling at them and forcing them to say the following: I last went to Vigo three years ago. It's much much more compact to say I last went "en vez de" The last time I went was. Okay? What's the important thing? The important thing is to remember that 'last' goes before non auxiliary verbs; I last went; I last ate; I last spoke; I last dance. And afeter auxiliary verbs, for example; I was last in Paris three years ago.

What we're gonna do is the following, I'm gonna read you a sentence using the longer form, the literal translation in Spanish which of course is correct, for example:

The last time I went to Cádiz was two years ago.

Quiero que me digas:

I last went to Cádiz two years ago.

The last time I saw you, was when we were at university together.

I last saw you when we were at university together.

The last time we did this was when we were kids.

We last did this when we were kids

The last time he played football was when he was at school.

He last played football when he was at school.

She was last nominated for a Goya in 1996.

El verbo “to be” siempre se comporta como un auxiliar.

She was last nominated.

He last fired someone a few months ago.

You last ate snails was when we were on holiday in the Loire Valle.

It last rained this much was when Noah built his ark.

You were last this nice to me was when I lent you some money.

The last time I was given a rise was three months ago.

I was last given a rise three months ago.

The last time England won The World Cup was in 1966

England last won the World Cup in 1966


THE FIRST TIME… / I FIRST…(La primera vez que…fue)

We can also use this expression when we're talking about the first time we do something, for example:

The first time I went into a pub was was when I was 15.

Well, we can also express this in this compact natural way:

I first went into a pub when I was 15. Cuando tenía 15 años.

The first time women were allowed to vote in Switzerland was in 1971…(se permitió)

Women were first allowed to vote in Switzerland in 1971

The first time she got married was in 1954.

She first got married in 1954

The first time Man went into space was in 1961.

Man first went into space in 1961

Cuando nos referimos al hombre como especie no lleva artículo determinado “Man” y va en mayúscula. Lo mismo ocurre con “mankind” pero se escribe en minúscula.


Let's turn on our attention now then to the interrogative, with the same structure

Cuándo fue la primera vez. Cuando fue la última vez que hiciste algo

In English we would say: When did you last do something? or When did you first do something?

I'm gonna give you the answers to a series of questions and I want you to formula it

I last went to the opera 5 years ago.

When did you last go to the opera?

He last told me that he loved me this morning.

I last spoke to my grandparents at Easter.

When did you last speak to your grandparents?

It last snowed here in 1917.

When did it last snow here?

When did you first begin to lose your hair?

When did you first go to Paris?

When did you first realise that you weren’t in love with him anymore?



How long (cuánto tiempo) + last (durar)

How long does it last? How long does a film last?

The news – A movie – A computer game – A conversation – A lunch break – A coffee break – Meeting and a match


How long does a movie usually last?

A movie usually lasts one and a half hours.

How long does a meeting in your department usually last?

A meeting in my department usually lasts thirty minutes.

How long does your lunch break last?

My lunch break lasts an hour.

How long your coffee break usually last?

How long does a football match last?

A football match lasts ninety minutes.

How long does a telephone conversation usually last?

How long does the news on T.V. last?

The news on T.V lasts thirty minutes.


DESPITE-IN SPITE OF. A pesar-A pesar

Despite + NOUN

Despite means; a pesar de. Of course it's usually follow by a noun by a substantive if you like. Let's have a look at few samples:

Despite the heat, they went for a walk.

Despite my accent, you can understand me.

Despite the delay, we’ll arrive on time.



When we use a verb after the expression 'Despite' we have to modify the expression, becomes 'Despite the fact that', for example:

Despite the fact that it was hot, they went for a walk.

Despite the fact that I have an accent, you can understand me.

There's another expression which is very similar and means exactly the same thing 'In spite of'. This time with a proposition; in spite of is exactly the same as despite, for example:

In spite of his nerves, he played very well.

In spite of the confusion they signed the contract. ...del desconcierto


When this expression is followed by a verb, we do exactly the same as with 'Dispite': DESPITE THE FACT THAT + VERB' or 'IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT + VERB'.

In spite of the fact that maths isn’t my strong point, I passed the exam.

 “Mats” también es singular

In spite of the fact that the book was thick I finished it in a week. Not fat.



In English there are two ways of saying 'En vez de'. Well, you have two ways in Spanish too; you can say 'En lugar de'. In English we can say 'instead of and rather than'. The only diffirent really is that 'Rather than' some time employs personal preferences. Both of them are followed by the verb in the gerund:

Instead of phoning him send him an email.

Fry it instead of boiling it.

He hired a dinner suit instead of buying one. Alquiló un smoking en lugar de…

Why did he leave her instead of marrying her?

Can’t you speak instead of shouting?

Why do you buy frozen fish instead of buying it fresh?

Shouldn’t we phoning them first instead of going straight there?

Why don’t you stay at my place instead of sleeping in a hotel? en mi casa

We're look at some examples now with Rather than:

He saw the film rather than reading the book.

Rather than typing he prefers to dictate to his secretary.

Why don’t you give it to me rather than being such an idiot? ser tan idiota.

Can I buy it rather than renting it?

Why don’t you let him eat what he wants? Rather than force-feeding him?

Rather than staying at home. Could we go out?

Will you think about it rather than making a rash decision? Precipitada

Okay, so don't forget 'Instead of and rather than' are pretty much synonyms.



Spain. Spanish - England. English – France. French – Germany. German – Italy. Italian – Russia. Russian – China. Chinese – Japan. Japanese - United States. American - Norway. Norwegian – Sweden. Swedish – Ireland. Irish – Finland. Finnish – Scotland. Scottish - Denmark. Danish – Greece. Greek – India. Indian – Austria. Austrian – Australia. Australian – Poland. Polish. Are the people en Australia Polish?


OMITIENDO EL ARTÍCULO (Descripciones en general).

Cars are getting more and more expensive.

People are more and more materialistic.

I don’t like cats.

I hate Mondays.

Designer sunglasses are expensive.

Bottle openers are useful. útiles

Most cats hate water.

Most of the cats in my neighbourhood are black.

describe unos gatos concretos.

Most glasses are transparent

Most of the books on my bookshelf are novels.

Describe unos libros concretos.



'Whose' is the equivalent of 'Cuyo' and 'Cuyo' is another word that we use very much in Spanish. We use a lot in English. 'Whose' is spelled w-h-o-s-e

The man whose dog is barking is my uncle.

Jenny, whose mother isn´t well, won’t be able to make it to the party.

'To make it' it's really common expression by the way. I can't make it to the meeting. Can you make it to night?

The person, whose phone is ringing, isn’t at their desk right now…no está en sus aposentos en este momemto.

In front row: En la fila de alante.


My friend, whose uncle is a cabinet minister, wants to go into politic….dedicarse, entrar en…

The company whose shares plummeted is run by my aunt.

The novel, whose author is French, has been translated into fifteen different languages. Distintos idiomas

The newspaper whose readers are mainly conservative voters, now outsells its main rival.

To outsell: Vender más que

To outperform: Rendir más que.

To outlive: Vivir más que.


The car, whose front wheel came off, was a complete write-off. siniestro total

The dog, whose owner forgot to tie it up, while he was in the shop, ran off and got ran over. Se soltó y le atropellaron.



How do we say; ¿de quién es este coche? We can't say; whose's that car? with the contraction, we have to say; whose is that car? but in fact it's much more common to say; whose car is that?

Whose car is that?  Whose book is that? Whose house is this? Whose car keys are these?

Whose cousin is that? ¿De quién es primo el?

Whose car did you steal?

Whose wife did we meet the other day?

La esposa que conocimos el otro día


Whose house did you eat at? En casa de quien

Whose garden did the tennis ball fall in? De quien es el jardín o en el jardín de…


I don’t know whose book it is:

Here, what follows whose is not a direct question so we don't say; I don't know whose book is it? but I don't know whose book it is?

I don’t know whose pens they are.

I don’t know whose wife we met the other day.

I don’t know whose house we ate at.

I don’t know whose garden the tennis ball fell in.


Whose pen is it? Whose car is it? Whose books are they?

Whose car is it?

Whose cats are they? De quién son los gatos.

Whose backpack is it? ….la mochila (rucksack “ráaksak”)-(satchel “para niños)

Whose letters are they?...las cartas. Whose is it? De quién es.

Whose are they? De quiénes son.

WHOSE ... + DEMOSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (this, that, these and those)

Whose car is it? Se convierte en; Whose car is this? Whose books are they? se convertiría; Whose books are those or these?.

Let's have a look at some examples then:

Whose folder is this? Whose coins are those?

Whose glass is this? Whose armchair is that? Whose phone is this?



Two different ways of saying 'Alguien' We have SOMEBODY and SOMEONE which we use when we're using a sentece in the affirmative, for example; I know someone who lives in Madrid. And when we're asking a questions using the word 'alguien' in English we can use ANYBODY or ANYONE, it doesn't matter both are extremly common

Okay, let's have a look at then. I'm gonna asking some questions and I want you answer yes, giving me the full answer, for example:

Do you know anybody who smokes? You should answer:

Yes, I know somebody who smokes. Exactly?

Now, we going to do the same exercise the other way round; I'm gonna give you the answer and I want you to come up with the question, for example:

Yes, I know someone who sings well. You should ask:

Do you know anyone who sings well?


NODODY, NO ONE: 'Nadie' como sujeto del verbo.

Nobody lives on the moon or No one lives on the moon.

I don’t know anybody who lives on the moon.

Or, I don’t know anyone who lives on the moon.



So, when 'nadie' is the object of a negative verb, we need to change 'Nobody or No one' into 'Anybody and Anyone', Okay let's then:

Do you know anybody who smokes a hundred cigarettes a day?

No, I don’t know anybody who smokes a hundred cigarettes a day.

Do you know anybody who works 22 hours a day?

No, I don’t know anybody who works 22 hours a day.

Do you know anybody who drives 10,000 kilometres a week?

No, I don’t know anybody who drives 10,000 kilometres a week.

Do you know anybody who eats 300 hamburgers a month?

No, I don’t know anybody who eats 300 hamburgers a month.

Do you know anybody who earns 900 million Euros a year?

No, I don’t know anybody who earns 900 million Euros a year.

Do you know anybody who makes 3,000 phone calls a day?

No, I don’t know anybody who makes 3,000 phone calls a day.

Do you know anybody who spends 3 million Euros a week?

No, I don’t know anybody who spends 3 million Euros a week.

Do you know anybody who showers 20 times a day?

No, I don’t know anybody who showers 20 times a day.

Do you know anybody who breaths 700 times per minute?

No. I don’t know anybody who breaths 700 times per minute.

Do you know anybody who blinks 10,000 times an hour?

No, I don’t know anybody who blinks 10,000 times an hour.



Okay, now we gonna look at 'Nobody'. 'Nobody' of course means 'Nadie' when it is the subject of the verb, okay?

Does everybody or nobody in your office work 24 hours a day?

Nobody in your office works 24 hours a day.

Is everybody or nobody in your office unemployed?

Nobody in your office is unemployed.

Does everybody or nobody at a football club like a football?

Everybody at a football club likes football.

Does everybody or nobody in Spain subject to Spanish law?

Everybody in Spain is subject to Spanish law.

Does everybody or nobody have to wear a seatbelt in a car in Spain?

Everybody has to wear a seatbelt in a car in Spain. Cinturón de seguridad

Can everybody or nobody in your house speak Estonian?

Nobody, in my house speaks Estonian.


ELSE (Más-Otro)

What are we gonna look at today? what we're gonna look at amongst other things the word 'else'. 'Else' is a stream word because is not wonder a lot of Spaniards use and yet (sin embargo) it's a really important word, because whenever you ask questions like; ¿Y qué más hiciste? In English we use 'else'. We would say: What else did you do? So 'Else' means the same as 'more' okay? In certain context, in a fact we would never say, what more do you do?

Let's start with a look at a series of examples of 'what else'

What else did he say? What else did you do?

What else do you want? <uo-téls>

What else does she study?

What else is he planning to buy? Qué más piensa comprar?

Pensar hacer algo; to plan to do something.


 WHERE ELSE? ¿En qué otro sitio?

Where else did you go? A dónde más fuiste?

HOW ELSE? ¿De qué otro modo?

How else can I make ends meet? De qué otro modo puedo llegar a final de mes?

WHO ELSE? ¿Quién más?

Who else was at the party? Quién más estuvo en la fiesta?

WHY ELSE? ¿Por qué otro motivo?

Why else would you want to take part? Por qué otro motivo querrías participar?

HOW ELSE? ¿De qué otro modo?

How else can you get to the North Pole? De qué otro modo se puede llegar…

WHY ELSE? ¿Por qué otro motivo?

Why else would she put up with him? Por qué otro motivo ella lo aguataría?

WHO ELSE? ¿Quién más?

Who else did you see there? A quién más viste ahí?

 WHERE ELSE? ¿En qué otro sitio?

Where else can you get such good ham? En qué otro sitio puedes conseguir un jamón tan bueno?


Now, we're going to move on to another use of the word 'else', okay? When in Spanish you say; otra cosa, otra persona. In English we would usually say; something else or someone else. En otro sitio; somewhere else. Lo que no solemos decir; another thing, another parson, another place.

I have something else to tell you. Tengo otra cosa que decirte

You’re talking about someone else. Estás hablando de otra persona

It must be somewhere else. Tiene que estar en otro sitio

Funnily enough someone else asked me the same question. Fíjate que…

I know Madrid is expensive. Have you tried looking elsewhere?

I need to take on someone else to help with the accounts. Necesito contratar otra persona para ayudar con la contabilidad.


Don’t worry; something else is bound to turn up. …es seguro que surja (Pres Subj) otra cosa

I think that part of the kitchen needs something else to liven it up a bit. Creo que parte de la cocina necesita algo más para darle un poco más de alegría

To live it up: Darle alegría



NO ONE ELSE (nadie más) / NOWHERE ELSE (ningún sitio) / NOBODY ELSE (nadie) / NOTHING ELSE (nada más)  

No one else would be capable of doing such a thing. Nadie sería capaz de hacer tal cosa

There’s nowhere else quite so beautiful. No hay ningún sitio tan bonito

Nobody else sings like she does. Nadie canta cómo ella

He painted nothing else after his heart attack. No pintó nada más después del infarto


NEGATIVE VERBS: Por supuesto cuando empleamos un verbo en negativo 'Nathing else' 'No one else' se convierte en 'Anything else' o 'Anybody else'

I wouldn’t like to be anywhere else right now. No me gustaría estar en otro sitio ahora mismo

I don’t know anybody else who would dare. No conozco a nadie que se atrevería

I don’t know anything else about the murder. No se nada más sobre el asesinato

La palabra “assassination” se emplea para magnicidios o persona pública.


Would you like anything else to eat? ¿Querías otra cosa para comer?


LET’S. Inviting to a person to do…

Everybody know the expression let’s go; Let’s go! Vayámonos! So let’s have a look at some, other examples when we use; let’s. Which specifically when we invite someone else to do something with us…at this very moment. Right now.

Let’s go!

Let's go! And the structure is very easy: Let’s plus the basic verb; let’s go! let’s eat! let’s run! let’s jump! let’s sing! I’m thinking better not. Okay, for example:

Let’s go!

Let’s have dinner! Cenemos!

Let’s start! Empecemos

Let’s carry on! Sigamos!

Let’s continue!

Let’s go on strike! Pongámonos de huelga!

Let’s have a cup of tea! ¡Tomemos una taza de te!

Let’s clear the table!

Let’s make an effort!

Let’s go away for a weekend!

Let’s have another go! ¡Intentémoslo de nuevo!


Let’s do some more examples now in the negative, this is very easy so always it same; let’s not, let’s not go, with the basic verb; let’s not go, let’s not do, let’s not jump, let’s not be, let’s not be slow buddy! I can go in!


Let’s not cause problems!

Let’s not go to work tomorrow!

Let’s not cut the grass today!

Let’s not carry on! ¡No sigamos!

Let’s not go to the cinema again!

Let’s not have pizza again!

Let’s not do anything!

Let’s not go anywhere!

Let’s not phone anyone!

Let’s not invite anybody!

Let’s not order anything! ¡No pidamos más!


HOW FAR IS IT. Qué distancia hay…

We going to look now at the way we say; How far is it from one place to another; How far is x to y?

How far is it from London to Birmingham?

How far is it from Bristol to Plymouth? <mezf>

How far is it from Southampton to Bournemouth?

How far is it from Glasgow to Edinburgh?

How far is it from Liverpool to Manchester?

How far is it from Bath to Gloucester?

How far is it from Cardiff to Swansea?

How far is it from San Francisco to Los Angeles?


'All right' is a word of way of sloppy way of saying 'How is it going?; How are you?; All right?' and you should answer of course. As you did! 'All right?' Okey-dokey. Let's get down to business!

We're going to look at the way we say 'Solía hacer o antes hacía' In English the equivalent verb of 'Soler' is 'USED TO; USED TO DO SOMETHING'. It’s a strange verb because ONLY EXISTS IN the PAST SIMPLE, so when we say “suelo hacer” we can’t say “I use to do” we have to say “I USUALLY DO” using the adverb “usually”. Usually; junto al presente simple significa “soler”.


I used to smoke when I was a teenager. Antes…


Good! Of course, when we use 'used to' it implais we not longer have a dog. As in this case: I used to have dog.

My mother used to work as an accountant. Antes…

I used to be a chain smoker. Antes…empedernido

We used to have problems with our old the neighbours. Antes….antiguos

They used to buy fish. Solian…

I used to like sweet things. 'Sweet things' because we're talking in general.

My dog used to chase my neighbour’s cat. Antes…

Perseguir: To chase

My brother used to have long hair but now he’s bald. Antes…

I used to think learning English would be easy! Antes…

I used to think life was easy!

Another noun that doesn't take the definite article. We don't say 'the life', we say 'life all ways' (La vida en todos los sentidos).

I didn’t use to like wine. Antes…

I don’t usually drink wine. No suelo beber vino

Paul didn’t use to read very much as a child. Paul no solía….de niño.

There didn’t use to be anything, where the new housing state is. Antes no había nada donde está la nueva urbanización.

I didn’t use to drink as much coffee as I do now.

There didn’t use to be any tree in my garden

I didn’t use to like gardening.

My sister and I didn’t use to get on when we were younger. No nos llevábamos


Some examples now IN THE INTERROGARIVE

Did you use to play football with your friends?

Did your father use to get up early when he worked?

Did Spain use to have an invincible armada?

Did Toledo use to be the capital of Spain?

Did it use to rain more in Spain?



I asked him not to go. Le pedí que no fuera

He asked me not to tell anyone. Le pedí que no se lo dijera a nadie.

They asked me not to resign yet. Me pidieron que no dimitiera aún.

Of course we always use this negative-infinitive in conjunction with the verb to tell.

I told him not to wear a tie. Le pedí que no llevare corbata

He told me not to worry. Me pedió que no me preocupara

They told me not to reveal the secret. Me pidieron que no revelara

She told me not to leave without letting her know. Me dijo que no me marchara sin avisarla (hacerlo saber)

TO DECIDE: Another verb which is used again with a negative-infinitive is 'to decide'; I decided to go or I decided not to go.

When you say 'At the end' you always have to say 'AT THE END OF SOMETHING'; at the end of the program; at the end of the film; At the end of the meeting. Of course we can place 'In the end' of the begining or the end of the sentence.

In English we can say something it's difficult to do or it's hard to do and of course we can use the same expression with the negative-infinitive; it's hard no to.

It’s hard not to cry in such situations. Es difícil no llorar en semejantes situaciones

It’s hard not to think about it. En ello.

It’s hard not to intervene. Intervenir



How do we form the superlative in English? Well, basically if we're talking about short adjectives (1 syllables or 2 ended up “y”) we simply place the word 'The' before the adjective and then add 'est' at the end of the adjective.

Short adjective exceptions; stubborn-brain-quiet-Strong

Tracy is the tallest in her class.

Kiernan is the strongest in the class.

I went on the fastest train in the world.

She’s the brainiest girl in the country.

A bright star; it's the brightest star in the sky. 'Brilliant' es 'Brillante' en sentido intelectual

We don't say 'In the town' but 'In town'. Okay? It's like at last sectures. It's the most intelligent guy in town; She is the most beautiful girl in town; it's the best restaurant in town.

It’s the quietest place I know.

He lives in the biggest (largest) house in this street.

Okay, let's swich over! Cambiemos!

She married the richest man in town.

He tells the funniest jokes in the world.

And again 'fany' ends in a 'y'. We chance the 'y' for an 'i' and we add 'est'; the funniest

She makes the tastiest cakes in the world.

'Tasty another adjective ending a 'y'. 'Tasty' becomes 'The tastiest' in the superlative.

We're going to look now some LONGER ADJECTIVES. Now here in order to form the SUPERLATIVE, we place the word 'THE MOST' before the adjective and then the adjective, for example; the most intelligent; the most beautifully, the most interesting; the most exciting like this class.

He’s the most insecure person I’ve ever met.

That was the most difficult exam I’ve ever done! (Jamás hecho)

John is probably the most influential person in this company.

This is definitely the most comfortable sofa in the shop.

The car uses the most advanced brakes in its category. frenos

Our trip to Rome was the most enjoyable one I’ve ever made. To make a trip

That was the most fascinating documentary I’ve ever seen. (Jamás visto) <fásineiting><dtokiomentri>

He’s the most boring man I’ve ever met.

That was the most frustrating experience I’ve ever had.<expiriens>

We're gonna look now at two exceptions; how do we say 'EL PEOR'? Decimos 'THE WORST' enfatizando la 't' porque si no, igual nos confundimos con el comparativo 'WORSE'. Eso es 'THE WORST' y el mejor 'THE BEST' Simply the best. Now when you say 'LO MEJOR O LO MÁS IMPORTANTE': 'THE MOST IMPORTANT THING'

The most peculiar thing about him is his laugh. Lo más estraño de todo

The worst thing about her is her temper. Lo peor de todo de ella

A good siesta is the best thing in the world. I must congratulate you on your pronunciation of the word 'siesta'. Of course we can also say 'A nap' or informal 'A kip' or 'Forty winks'

The most interesting thing about the church is its altar. Lo más interesante de todo…



There will be drinks available.

There will be an orchestra playing.

There will be somebody singing.

I think it will be a party on Friday.

There won’t be enough time to do everything. Todo

There won’t be much money left by the end of the month. No quedará…

There won’t be many employees at the meeting.

There won’t be enough food for everyone. Todo el mundo

Will there be any subsidies? Subvenciones



In English there are two ways of saying 'DEMASIADO' When we're talking about AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUN; we say 'TOO MUCH' for example; too much sugar; too much rain; too much money (don't forget 'money' is always uncountable from grammatical point of view). When on the other hand we're talking COUNTABLE NOUNS IN THE PLURAL we use the word 'TOO MANY'. Let's start with some UNCOUNTABLE examples:

Footballers have too much money.

There’s too much traffic in big cities these days. Nowadays

My baby makes too much noise at night.

Too much sun is not good for you.

He drank too much alcohol at the party

Global warming is the result of too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

She listens to too much music.

He was under too much pressure in that job.

Too much fat and too much sugar in your diet will make you fat.

I have too much work to be able to go out this weekend.

He has too much experience for the job he’s applying for. Que ha solicitado


Let's look now some examples using COUNTABLE NOUNS IN THE PLURAL:

Decir mentiras en inglés es 'To tell lays' and not 'To say lays'.

He smoked too many cigarettes.

I have too many weddings to go to this year.

He’s had too many girlfriends.

There are too many people on the Metro in the morning.

On the metro; On the tube; On the underground or undersubway, as they say in US.

Let's change!

There are too many irregular verbs in English.

You made too many mistakes in your exam.

He has too many books on these shelves.

He made too many enemies as chairman of that company.

This is the typical English saying: Too many cooks spoil the broth. 'Broth' is an old word for 'soup'. Opposite: Too many hands make light work



Now, the verb 'To remember' can ADD the take THE GERUND or THE INFINITIVE WITH TO. When we use it IN CONJUNCTION WITH A GERUND is when we're talking about a definite memory we have of doing something, okay? However when we use it in conjunction with the infinitive with to, we're talking talking must something which we mustn't forget to do, for example:

In 1999 you meet your friend Harry. …conociste

I remember meeting Harry in 1999. Me acuerdo que conocí……


Yesterday was your father’s birthday and you had to call him, fortunately, you did.

I remembered to call my father yesterday.


In 2002 you watched the Champions League final. It made a vivid impression on you. Te dejó una impresionante vivencia.

I remember watching the 2002 Champions League final. Me acuerdo que vi


Your partner asks if you locked the house when you left this morning.

You did; yes, I remembered to lock the house when I left this morning.


You want your partner to call the plumber this afternoon. They are likely to forget, so remind them. Es probable que se olviden, pues recuérdales. (recordar algo a alguien).

Remember to call the plumber this afternoon.


You and your partner went to Venice in 1995. Ask them if they remember it.

Do you remember going to Venice? Te acuerdas cuando fuiste


You and your partner are going to Venice tomorrow. Your partner was supposed to pick up the tickets today. Ask them if they did.  ...daba por supuesto

Did you remember to pick up the tickets for Venice?


You partner says you promised to take them on a trip to Venice. You don’t remember this promise. contratarles un viaje

I don’t remember promising to take you on a trip to Venice.

No me acuerdo que prometiera contratar un viaje.


You forgot to renew your car insurance.

You tell your partner; I didn’t remember to renew my car insurance.


Your partner asks you if you remember the time you had the wallet stolen and if you remember how you felt. Te pregunta si te acuerdas como te sentías la vez que te robaron la cartera….

I only remember being very angry. …que estaba muy cabreado


You have to post an important letter tomorrow morning and remind yourself out loud, “I must…” (recordar algo a alguien)

I must remember to post that letter tomorrow morning.


Quedarse sin algo: To run out of.




We're gonna look now, at the way we say 'A no ser que'. Now, some time in Spanish you say for example; No iré a no ser que tú no vegas, okay? Now in English we don't use that neagative in the second part. We would say I won't go unless you come. Don't forget when we're talking about the future, after the word unless, the verb goes in the present simple; unless you go; unless he says; unless they come, all right? The future with will is always in the other part of the sentence. Let's look at the first, so then:

I won’t go unless you come with me.

The plant won’t grow unless you water it.

I’ll be there at 8.00 a.m. unless you tell me otherwise.

He’ll take over the whole company unless you do something. Asumir

They’ll do whatever they want unless someone stands up to them. Plantar cara

Unless you get your ideas together you’ll never win first prize. ...aclares las ideas..

Unless something unexpected happens, everything should go according to plan.

The factory won’t close down unless there is a major recession. importante

There’s no doubt that Jeremy’s son will get the top grades unless he has a really bad day. sacará las mejores notas…. Un día verdaderamente malo.


I won’t let you go out tonight unless you tidy your room.

Jim’s brother said he wouldn’t come unless you call him personally.

We’ll have to go ahead with the original plan unless you have a better idea.

My boss told me that he won’t approve the budget unless he receives a more detailed breakdown. Reciba un desglose mas detallado.


The match will be called off unless the weather changes radically.



En muchas ocasiones, los verbos reflexivos españoles se expresan en ingles con el verbo “to get”, seguido de un adjetivo.


They got married three years ago. Se casaron…

I’m getting tired of this. Me estoy cansado.

I got sick last week. Enfermé.

Your cough is getting worse. Empeorando(tos).

My English is getting better. Mejorando

In Scotland it gets dark at three o’clock in the winter. Oscurece

The children got really dirty playing football. Se ensuciaron mucho

No se dice: to get dirty a lot.


My boss got very angry when I told him the news. Se enfadó

I got up at five o’clock this morning. Me levanté

I’m getting confused.(Lost in metaphorical sense). Me pierdo

Their star player got injured last Saturday. Se lesionó

Get dressed quickly! ¡Vestios…!

Get dry before you put your clothes on. Sécate

We got lost in the back street of Barcelona. Backstreet Boys. Callejuela.

Edward got depressed when his wife left him. Se deprimió

They got drunk at Paul’s stag night. (Deer) Se emborraron

but the women “a hen party”

In English “hen” means “gallinda” in Scotland  “hen” means “girl”.

I always get bored when I have to go to the supermarket. Me aburro

She got really scared when she saw the spider. Pasó mucho miedo…

I got wet walking to work. Me mojé

I got soaking wet walking to work. Me empapé.

We need to get organised. Organizarnos 

Don’t get sad, things will get better. No te pongas triste…mejorarán

It’s time to get organised, they’ll be here very soon. Es la hora de organizarse


Do you get confused when people talk fast? Te pierdes…?

I’ve been getting fatter and fatter since I started working in an office.

He estado engordando cada vez mas

En ingles no existe el “usted” tampoco “tutear” lo más cercano es “to call someone by their first name” or “to be on first name terms with someone”

Llamar a alguien por su nombre de pila, o tener nombre de pila con alguien.












TOO (demasiado): When it’s going accompanied for a noun it becomes “too much” or “too many” and precedes both, the noun and the adjective.

ENOUGH (bastante, suficiente): If it works as adjective, precedes to noun “enough money”, and works as adverb always behind of adjective “big enough” (suficientemente…)

It’s too big. It’s too small.

It’s big enough. It isn’t small enough. It’s too fast.

It’s fast enough. It isn’t slow enough.

I can’t put a car in my pocket because a car is too big. meter

I can’t put a car in my pocket because a car isn’t small enough.

I can’t put a car in my pocket because my pocket isn’t big enough.

TOO MUCH: Too much sugar. Too much wine. Too much water. Too much money.

TOO MANY: Too many books. Too many cars.

INOUGH: I have enough money. I have enough work. I have enough books. I have enough time.

I have enough problems.

I don’t have enough money.

I have too many problems.

There aren’t enough chairs.

There isn’t enough water.

There aren’t enough policemen to keep criminals under control. Para mantener a los delincuentes bajo control. Delinquent means “delincuente menor de edad”


There isn’t enough information to make a decision….para tomar una decision.

I have too many books.

I don’t have enough books.

She’s drunk to much champagne.

She’s not popular enough to organise a party. (adv.)

He’s thirsty enough to drink all the drinks.

She isn’t hungry enough to eat all the cakes.


¿Cómo está el tiempo?

The other way to say it; how’s the weather?

How’s the weather in Athens? We use when everyone’s on phone.


It’s nice day. The weather’s nice. It’s a lovely day/a beautiful day. The weather’s bad. The weather’s awful. It’s raining. It’s warm. It’s cool. It’s windy. It’s cool and rainy. It’s cool and windy. It’s foggy. The sky’s clear. It’s cloudy. The sky’s overcast. It’s snowing. It’s raining cats and dogs. It’s hailing. The sun’s shining. It’s getting cloudy. The sky’s clearing up. The sun’s coming out. It’s stormy. It’s thundering and lightning.



To prefer: expresa preferencias en general.

To prefer + nouns

I like rugby. I prefer football.

I like the summer. I prefer the winter

I like sweet things. I prefer savoury things. <seifvouri>

I like black coffee. I prefer white coffee



I like getting up early. I prefer getting up late.

I like driving fast. I prefer driving slowly.

I like doing nothing at the weekend. I prefer doing lots of things at the weekend.


To sleep in: dormir sin hora “I like sleeping in on Sundays”

To oversleep: levantarse más tarde de lo esperado.


I like drinking white wine. I prefer drinking red wine.

I like travelling by plane. I prefer travelling by train.

I like listening to pop music. I prefer listening to classical music.


I’D RATHER + INF.VERB. Expresa otras prefererencias a las sugerencias.

Shall we go to the theatre? I’d rather go to the cinema. Prefiero

Shall we have some tea? I’d rather have some coffee.

Shall we keep going? I’d rather stop. Shall we carry on? Prefiero

Shall we go to the pub? I’d rather stay at home.

Shall we phone them tonight? I’d rather phone them tomorrow.


I’D RATHER NOT + INF. VERB. (Prefiero no)

I’d rather not go to the cinema.

I’d rather not commit myself for the time being. Comprometerme

To compromise: llegar a un acuerdo y no comprometerse.

I’d rather not sell my shares for the time being. Por el momento

I’d rather not go shopping today.

I’d rather not have to get up early tomorrow.


I’D RATHER + PAST SIMPLE (Pret. Imp. Subj)

I’d rather he did it.

I’d rather she went to the meeting.

I’d rather you did it.

I’d rather you spoke at the press conference. Rueda de prensa.


WOULD YOU RATHER…? ¿Quieres…ó prefieres…? (una cosa u otra)

Do you want to go to the beach or would you rather to go to mountains? Prefieres

Do you want to play tennis or would you rather play basketball? Prefieres

Do you want a glass of wine or would you rather have a beer? Prefieres

Do you want to go into town or would you rather stay at home?

Do you want me to get you a new book or would you rather I got you a magazine?

Quieres que traiga (Pres.Subj.)...ó preferirías que trajese (Imp.Subj.) una revista? Traigas lo que trajeres (Fut.Subj.) me gusta.


Do you want me to wash a car or would you rather I cleaned the garage?

Quieres que lave…ó preferirías que limpiase...

Hagas lo que hicieres me gusta.



Can you pick the kids up from the school tomorrow?

I’d rather not.

Are you coming with us to the shops?

I’d rather not.

Will you ask the boss to explain his decision to us?

I’d rather not.

Are you coming with us for a pizza?

Would you mind working in the shop this Saturday?

I’d rather not.

Would you mind staying back late tonight?

I’d rather not.

Quedarse a trabajar en la oficina más tarde de lo habitual.

I’m going for a dip. Are you coming?

I’d rather not.

Darse un chapuzón.



Of course in English there are two ways of saying “otro” and depends if we’re talking about a singular thing or a plural thing. If we’re talking about “otro libro” we will say “another book”. Where us if we’re talking about “otros libros, sería” other books. (por lo tanto)

I don’t want this book. I want another book.

Not all people were brought up in a healthy environment. True. Some people were brought up in a healthy environment and other people weren’t. No todas las personas se criaron en un ambiente sano



Chimney. Curtains. Toys. Toy soldier. Toy truck. Toy car. Shelves (Estantes).



Cigarettes. Cigars. Packet. Box



How much money is there in account number 17?

There’s twenty seven dollars in account number seventeen.

Account number 17 amount $27

Account number 33 amount $346

Account number 412 amount $35

Account number 98 amount $628

Account number 587 amount $477

Account number 55 amount $109



“Present Perfect” inglés o “pasado perfecto compuesto” español

The present perfect is the tense we use when we’re talking about in incomplete time period. Exp., to day, this year, et cetera, etc.

Subj. + have + participle


I’ve done a lot of things today.

I’ve been abroad three times this year.


Now, we’re gonna look at the past simple versus the present perfect we’re going to compare something that happened in a closed period of time with something to happen in an opened period of time, for example “last year” and “this year”. With “last year” we use the past simple. When we’re talking about “this year” we use the present perfect.

The last year means “el ultimo año” and last year means “el año pasado”

Last year I won two awards, but this year I haven’t won any.

Today they’ve invited three people but yesterday they didn’t invite anyone.

Today we’ve found two mistakes but yesterday we didn’t find any.

Yesterday John called me twice, but today he’s called me eight times!



Today’s expression actually requires the present perfect and it means “Oir hablar de alguien” to hear of someone, for example:

I’ve heard of him

Have you heard of Casanova?

I’ve never heard anything like it. nada parecido

Nobody’s heard of you

False friends: actually. Adv. en realidad, de hecho.

“Actualizar” like verb it doesn’t exist. We’d say “to refresh” or “to update”, and “currently” in order to “actualmente”

“Really!” means, like interjection; “De verdad!”, “Mire usted!”. Like adv.; de verdad, verdaderamente, realmente.



I'm gonna ask you now, a series of upset questions. The answer to all of which I guess will be no. I think you've never done, I want we don't imagine. So let’s go:


Have you ever drunk three liters of petrol for breakfast?

No, I’ve never drunk three liters of petrol for breakfast.

Have you ever spoken Russian?

No, I’ve never spoken Russian.

Have you ever skied naked? Alguna vez has esquiado desnudo?

No, I’ve never skied naked.

Have you ever eaten giraffe paté on toast?

No, I’ve never eaten giraffe paté on toast.

Have you ever sung in Japanese in front of three hundred thousand people?

No, I’ve never sung in Japanese in front of three hundred thousand people.

Have you ever driven F. Alonso’s car along the Castellana in Madrid?

No, I’ve never driven F. Alonso’s car along the Castellana in Madrid.

Have you ever taught the King of Spain English?

No, I’ve never taught the King of Spain English.

Have you ever understood why the English drive on the other side of the road?

No, I’ve never understood why the English drive on the other side of the road.

Have you ever spoken to a snail?

No, I’ve never spoken to a snail. Caracol

Have you ever slept with a rhinoceros?

No, I’ve never slept with a rhinoceros.

Have you ever made a cake with thirty thousand eggs?

No, I’ve never made a cake with thirty thousand eggs.

Have you ever lived in a walnut?

No, I’ve never lived in a walnut.



I’m looking for my wallet.

Can you help me look my contact lenses?

Can you help me to look for my contact lenses?


TO LOOK FORWARD TO SOMETHING (tener muchas ganas)

Looking forward to + verb +ing

Tim’s really looking forward to seeing the musical. Tiene muchas ganas de ver…

Isn’t he looking forward to seeing the football match too? ¿No tiene ganas..

This expression is again another few expressions where the proposition “to” is followed by the gerund, the verb ended up “ing”; looking forward to doing, looking forward to going, looking forward to speaking, looking forward to listening.

We’re all looking forward to our holidays. Todos tenemos ganas de…

I think it’s the time of year I least look forward to. ,,,que esta es la época del año que menos me apetece.

Are you looking forward to you birthday? ¿Tienes muchas ganas que llegue tu cumple?

I’m really looking forward to spending the weekend with my in-laws. Suegros

I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon. Espero con ilusión noticias tuyas.



It depends on…

I’ve got up bit over block up nose. Me he levantado un poco constipado.

Constipated. Estreñido


It depends on the weather.

It depends on the traffic.

It depends on the year of the wine.

Ït depends on the season.

It depends on his attitude.

It depends on the food you eat.

It depends on the way you ask him.

It depends on the type of speakers you use.

It depends on the time of day. De la hora del día.

It depends on her mood. (humor; estado de ánimo.Humour; Reir)

IT DEPENDS WHETHER…(IF) <güézar, like weather>.

It depends whether you do this.

It depends whether my sister comes or not.

It depends whether they get on with each other or not.

It depends whether they think idea is good or bad.

It depends whether you use petrol or diesel.

The Americans use “gas” by gasoline.

The Britons use “petrol” by gasoline.

The oil industry. Industria del petróleo.

It depends whether you have a car or not.

It depends whether they want to buy a house or rent a flat.

It depends whether you were born in the seventies or in the eighties.


It depends what the boss says.

It depends what I’ve eaten for breakfast.

It depends what you call a good offer. Consideres una Buena offerta


It depends where we buy it.


It depends when I finish reading the report.

It depends when they release him.

It depends when it stops raining.



e.g. por ejemplo. “ej”.

i.e. es decir

There are several things about him I don’t like, e.g., his arrogance, the way he speaks and his manners.

I feel like reading several Shakespeare plays over the summer holidays, e.g., “Hamlet”, “Othello” and Twelfth night”. Algunas obras de… durante…ej.

That neighbourhood isn’s safe, i.e., it’s not a good idea go there after dark. De noche.


Your idea will never take off, i.e., you’re wasting your time.

Tu idea nunca tendrá éxito (despegará) es decir, estás perdiendo el tiempo


You’ll have to speak to the person in charge, i.e., Amanda.

My new mobile is really userunfrienly, i.e., it’s impossible to understand.

Muy complicado.



Everybody learns the verb to be worth, as the equivalent of “valer/valor” but it’s much better to think a bit as, the equivalent “merece la pena”


Worth + verb +ing (To be worth doing something)

It’s worth going to the Prado museum.

It isn’t worth getting angry about. Enfadarse por ello.

It wasn’t worth getting up for. Levantarse por ello.

It’s worth persevering.

It’s not worth complaining about.  Quejarse por ello.

I think it’s worth fighting for. Luchar por ello.

Is it worth telling them not to come? Decirles que no vengan?

Was it worth getting your hair cut for? Cortarse el pelo por ello?

Was it worth staying in, to watch the match? Quedarse en casa…


It was worth the effort.

It was worth the wait.

It was worth the hassle. Los contratiempos.

It’s worth it! Merece la pena.

It’s not worth it!

I don’t think it’s worth it or I think it’s not worth it.

Is it worth it?