VERBAL PRACTICE IV
My boss’ brother is about sixty years old.
Sam’s mother is sixty-seven years old.
Sonia’s cat is around ten years old.
Mario’s nephew is six years old.
My parent’s car is three years old.
My mother-in-law’s friend is about eighty years old.
My brother-in-law’s boss is around forty years old.
How old is your friend’s father-in-low?
How old is their dog?
How old is Paul and Sharon’s sun?
WE AND THEY HAVE + Art. Indeterm.
Light (luz) –A lighter (encendedor)- An ashtray (un cenicero) –A notebook (cuaderno) –A key- Mobile –A digital camera –A letter (carta)
They have a blue notebook in front of them. <noutbok>
We have a digital camera at home.
They have a lot of friends in Spain.
We don’t have an ashtray here.
They don’t have a key for the door. La llave “decimos en español”…
They don’t have any water on their table. Water “uncountable”
We don’t have any light in our flat. “Enfasis; nada”No tenemos luz en…
Light “generally uncountable” but “countable on installations”
Do they have any children? “algún” ¿Tienen chicos?
Do they have a car? Uso del art.indet.
Do we have the car keys?
HE, SHE AND IT HAS + Art. Indeterm.
Peter has a red sport car.
Mary’s nephew has a new mobile.
My brother doesn’t have any money. “Uncountable”.
The book doesn’t have a title. Uso del art. indet.
The dog next to my car doesn’t have a home. Uso del art. indet.
James’ bicycle doesn’t have any wheels. “ninguno” No tiene ruedas
Does your wife have a car? Uso del art. det.
Does the Spanish national anthem have any words?
Does the Queen of England have any dogs?
Does Salamanca have a lot of history buildings?
Does he have a house in Spain? Does she have any friends?
Does he have a bicycle? Does he have a dog? Does he have any water?
Does she have a million dollars? Does he have a house in Finland?
Does she have a lighter? Do you have a light? Does your mother have a car?
Does your uncle have a house in Spain?
Does your grandmother have ten cats? Does Spain have a lot of sun? Yes, it does.
Does the shop have any windows?
HOW MANY + TO HAVE
How many books does she have? How many notebooks does he have?
How many pencils do I have? A piano has eighty-eight keys.
Auxiliary verb “should”. After “should” never follow “to”
You should go! He should go! We should run! We should work! We should study!
We should start really!
You should go to the dentist’s.
You should go to the doctor’s.
You should go to the optician’s.
You should tell him.
You should stop smoking.
You should make an effort.
You should send her some flowers.
They should get married.
We should book early. “To book” I have a reserve in pocket. Tengo la reserva en el bolsillo
There should be more security guards on trains at night.
You shouldn’t say that.
You shouldn’t pay any attention to him. “To pay” poner atención
You shouldn’t be so rude. Maleducado
“Should” puede sonar ofensivo por eso que se utiliza en confianza y más con niños. Es más educado y suavizado decir “If I were you I would…” or “I think you should…”
Should I tell her the truth? Should we stop? Should we week you in the morning?
Should we invite them to the party? Do you think I should give her a present?
Do you think we should give up? Do you think I should let her know? Avisarla
Do you think we should think about it? Pensarlo
Do you think I should write to the mayor? Do you think I should go to the doctor’s?
FUTURO DEL SUBJ. Español: SUBJ. + SHOULD + PRES. SIMPLE as FUTURE. “EN PRINCIPIO….”
They shouldn’t cause you any problems. En principio no te darán problemas; No debieren darte ningún problema.
The train should arrive in five minutes. En principio el tren llegará en 5 minutos; El tren debiere llegar en 5 minutos.
Cuando utilizamos “ought to” en vez de “should” hablamos con un tono más enfático. Su sinónimo en inglés es “REALLY SHOULD”.
You ought to go. You ought to work. You ought to study hard.
“Ought” se pronuncia “órt” pero hablando rápido tendemos a decir “óra” para “ought to”
You ought to do this.
You ought to tell them.
They ought to mind their own business.
I ought to phone my mother.
I ought to do my tax return. I should do my tax return.
I ought to do some work at home this weekend.
I ought to finish my report.
We ought to say sorry. Deberíamos disculparnos
IN NEGATIVE; Ought not to. (Que empleamos en contadas ocasiones).
You ought not to say those things about him.
IN THE INTERROGATIVE; It’s not actually that common to ask questions with ought. It’s a bit like should we use it “do you think I ought to, rather than ought I to…” We practice few:
Ought I to ask permission?
Ought we to leave? ¿Deberíamos marcharnos?
It’s much, much more common to say; Do you think I ought to stop?
“WHEN” IN FUTURE CONTEXT.
Los verbos en contexto de futuro (nuestro subjuntive), después de la expresión “when”, al igual que después de “as soon as” empleamos el presente simple con “s” final para la tercera persona.
EL verbo que le sigue a “when” se expresa en presente simple. El fututo irá en otra oración distinta a la que pertenezca “when”.
She’ll tell you when she knows.
They’ll realise when they get there
“Llegar”: to arrive and to get. “To arrive” se emplea cuando no mencionamos donde hemos llegado “I arrived”. “To get” se emplea cuando mencionamos el lugar donde llegamos “I got to de station”, “I got there”
When it rains we’ll look for some snails. caracoles
When he comes we’ll to the Goggenheim.
When you fall in love you’ll know.
When he earns some money he’ll pay you back. Te lo devolverá.
It doesn't matter if "when" goes in the first clause or the second, what follows to “when” always goes in present simple.
TO PAY BACK OR TO GIVE BACK; empleamos el verbo “to give back” cuando por ejemplo una tienda nos devuelve el dinero.
When you go to university you’ll have to study hard. Estudiar mucho
When you’re older you’ll be very tall. Cuando seas mayor…
Will you let me know when you arrive?
Will she retire when she’s sixty? Cuando tenga sesenta años
Will you move to a bigger house when you’ll child is born? Nazca tu hijo
“Move and mauve” <múuv> and <móuv> (malva).
Will you move to a smaller house when your children fly the nest?
La metáfora es la misma en inglés salvo que empleamos “to fly” en lugar de “to abandon”
When you’re rich and famous, will you remember me?
When he’s old, will he have any teeth left?
When you get your bonus, what will you spend it on? Recibas
THE PASSIVE VOICE
Basic structure: “C.D. + (passive voice)”.
En español no solemos alterar el complemento directo de la estructura básica de la oración y a cambio solemos comenzar la frase con un “se…”
The key to using the passive well is having a full agility with the verb “to be”. The passive in English is expressed using the verb “To be” followed by the perfect participle.
It’s done. It will be done. It has been done. It would have been done.
Starting with the present simple:
It’s done every day. Se hace…
They’re made in China. “Passive plural” Se hacen…
It’s sold in over fifty countries. Se vende en más de…
He’s been here for over fifty years. Lleva más de…
To cut down trees. Talar árboles
Is much wine drunk in France? Se bebe…
Are many birds killed near airport? Se matan…
PRESENT CONTINUOUS PASSIVE VOICE:
It’s being done. -It’s being shown it. -It’s being developed.
A few examples now still in the future, but with “Going to”.
So; going to be dance - going to be finished - going to be said.
THE PASSIVE VOICE IN FUTURE: “To be” with “Will”
So; will be done. –Will be eaten. –Will be finished.
The programme will be broadcast live. Se emitirá en vivo
The piano won’t be delivered until the beginning of next month. No se entregará hasta principios del mes que viene.
It’s never said “the next month” when we want to say “el mes que viene”
decimos “Next month”.
Your car will be repaired as soon as possible. Se reparará cuanto antes.
When will the new motorway be inaugurated? ¿Cuándo inagurará…
What will the money be spent on? ¿En que se gastará…
THE PASSIVE VOICE IN IMMEDIATE FUTURE “to be” with “going to”
Are the paintings going to be auctioned? ¿Se van a subastar…?
The swimming pool is going to be cleaned. Se va a limpiar…
The pictures aren’t going to be changed until next month.
THE PASSIVE VOICE IN EMINENT FUTURE “to be” with “about to”
About to be done. –About to be eaten. About to be completed.
The house is about to be knocked down. Está a punto de derribarse
By the way the “k” is silent in “knock”
To Shoot: Derribar
That plane is about to be shut down. Está a punto de ser…
Those people are about to be fired. Están a punto de ser…
I hope I’m not about to be fired. Que no esté a punto de ser…
She’s about to be promoted. Está a punto de ser ascendida
THE PASSIVE VOICE II
THE PASSIVE VOICE IN PAST SIMPLE. “To be” in past simple (fui-fuiste-fue-fuimos-fuisteis-fueron)
Basic structure: “C.D. + (passive voice)”
The castle was built in the 14th century. Se construyó…(fue)
The flowers were planted at night. Se plantaron…(fueron)
The streetlamps were designed in Norway. Se diseñaron
Larry’s cat was run over by a lorry. Al gato de Larry le atropelló…
Lorry: In UK means “trailer” and the Americans say “truck” which means “camion” to English.
The honey was made by nuns. La miel está hecha por las monjas
The ceiling was painted by a genius. El techo está pintado…”genius”
The roof was damaged in the storm. El tejado tiene daños de…
We were knocked out by a German team. Fuimos eliminados por…
En el contexto deportivo no utilizamos “eliminate” sino “knock out”
The pictures were painted by blind people. Han sido pintados por ciegos
No se puede decir solo “blinds” ya que cómo sustantivo significa “persiana”. Un ciego es “a blind person”
THE PASIVE VOICE IN PAST SIMPLE CONTINUOUS.
The match was being decided when it started to rain. Se estaba decidiendo…empezó a…
The cows were being milked when the barn collapsed. Estaban siendo ordeñandas las vacas cuando el establo se vino abajo.
The man was being investigated by the Police when he went to Brazil. El hombre estaba siendo investigando…cuando se marchó a Brasil.
En una frase en pasiva no se puede traducir nunca la palabra “Por” por “For”. Si no “By”. “The symphony was composed by Beethoven”
THE PASSIVE VOICE IN PRESENT PERFECT.
The chair has just been mended. …se acaba de reparar
The decision has just been made. …se acaba de tomar
The house has just been sold. …se acaba de vender
The burglar has already been arrested. El ladrón ya ha sido arrestado
The finalists have just been named. Acaban de ser nombrados
The successful candidate has just been appointed. El candidate acaba de ser…
“To be appointed to a position” y no “to be named”. Nombramiento para un puesto
The windows have just been cleaned. Acaban de ser…
THE PASSIVE VOICE IN PAST PERFECT (pluperf). “To be”
S + had + been + participle. “Había sido” + verbo participio
S + had + just + been. “Acababan de ser” + Past simple
The museum had just been officially opened when the thief took place. Se acababa de inaugurar el museo cuando el robo tuvo lugar.
The text had just been approved when the publisher’s (has) changed their mind. Se acababa de aprobar el texto…la editorial cambió de opinión
“Editor” Editor (el que corrige los textos)
The leaflets had just been printed when the marketing manager decided to change the text. Se acababan de imprimir los folletos…director de…
THE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE CONDITIONAL SIMPLE “would be” + participle
That brand of coffee would be drunk more if it were better known. La marca de café se bebería más si fuese más (mejor) conocida
He would be promoted if he worked harder. Sería ascendido si trabajara más
The streets would be cleaned more often if we had a bigger budget. Se limpiarían más si tuviéramos un presupuesto mayor.
They would be given a bigger budget if you complained more. Si te quejases más
THE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE PAST CONDITIONAL “would have been” + participle.
He would have been killed if the tree had fallen on top of him. Se habría matado si el árbol le hubiese caído encima.
The wine would have been delivered on time if there hadn’t been a strike. Se habría entregado el vino a tiempo si no hubiese habido una huelga.
The work would have been finished if we had hired more workers. Se habría terminado el trabajo si hubiésemos contratados más trabajadores
The men would have been rescued if the helicopter had been in service
“ME ROBARON” IN PASSIVE VOICE
Basic structure: “C.D. + (passive voice)
En castellano es muy común utilizar la tercera persona del plural de forma impersonal para describir algo que ocurrió a alguien. En inglés expresamos la misma idea con la voz pasiva. Por ejemplo; me dijeron, me robaron, me atacaron; I was told, I was robbed, I was attacked.
I was mugged in Atocha. Me robaron…
A thief: Un simple ladrón
A burglar: Un ladrón que desvalija casas.
A robber: Un ladrón de bancos.
Mugger: Asaltante con violencia
Pickpocket: Asaltante desapercibido
Nunca diriamos “they mugged me” sin hacer referencia previa al ladrón.
El pasado de nuestro verbo para robar con un arma “to mug”se pronuncia “máagd” y se dice en una sola sílaba.
We were told of the changes to the timetable at the last minute.
Nos informaron de los cambios de horario a última hora.
They were fired without prior warning. Les despidieron sin previo aviso
They were attacked in a revine. Les atacaron en un barranco.
He was chosen on account of his leadership qualities. because of
Le eligieron por su cualidades de liderazgo
They were conned in a restaurant. Les timaron
Engañar: “To trick” y timar “to con”
He was promoted thanks to his excellent track record in the company.
Le ascendieron debido (gracias a)…trayectoria…
She was prevented from speaking to the manager. Le impidieron para…
Cuando nos roban, lo robado se convierte en el sujeto:
My briefcase was stolen at the airport. Me robaron el maletín…
My Suitcases were lost in Helsinki. Me perdieron las maletas..
My passport was confiscated at customs. Me confiscaron…
Their dog was found in a wood. Les encontraron el perro…
My car was taken away. Se llavaron…
His shoelaces were taken away in jail. Le quitaron los cordones
My bike was stolen from my house. Me robaron la bici…
It was left in a clearing. Le abandonaron en el descampado
It was recovered two days later. La recuperaron…después
“Later” cuando acompaña otro elemento de tiempo.
“After” para después de algo
“Afterwards” para después a secas
The façade of his house was painted during his absence. <fasád>
Le pintaron la fachada…su ausencia
SOMETHING NEEDS DOING (hace falta hacer algo).
Hace falta hacer algo. “To need + verb +ing”
Its original structure verbal is looked like the Passive Form. E.g. “something needs to be done” is equal to “something needs doing”.
The guest room needs painting.
The car needs cleaning.
My computer needs fixing.
Doesn’t this machine need plugging in?
My phone needs charging.
The goldfish need feeding every other day.
Fish and sheep not pluralized the “S”
These vegetables need reheating. They’re cold
The room looks great, but the curtains still need repairing. Tiene Buena pinta…
The back wheel of your bike needs oiling.
This piano needs tuning. It sounds terrible. <chüning>
The grass needs cutting. It looks like a jungle.
These plants need watering every five days.
Your desk needs tidying. It’s a mess!
Those bushes need trimming. Hace falta recortar…
The prefix OVER and the prefix UNDER
Excesos y carencias: Sobre/Infra - Más de la cuenta/menos de la cuenta.
To overwork – To overspend; which you're spending too much money – To overeat means you’re eating too much.
To underspend means you haven’t spent all your budget. And the use is “infra-utilizar”, very easy. Let’s have a look at some examples then:
I have to be careful at the moment as I overspent last month.
Tengo que…por ahora…ya que…gasté más de la cuenta…,.
He completely overestimated public interest in the event. It was a complete flop (failure)
Sobrestimó totalmente el interés popular del…fue un fracaso total.
I didn’t sleep a wink as I seriously overate last night.
No pegué ojo porque me harté a comer anoche (me excedí seriamente con la comida)
You must cut down a bit. You’re overworking and that can lead to serious health problems.
Debes moderarte un poco. Estás trabajando de más…puede traerte (conducirte a) serios (graves) problemas de salud.
The meeting overran by more of two hours. Se prolongó por más de 2hs
I sorry but I think I undercooked the meat. Dejé poco hecha la carne
I had underestimated my opponent which is why I lost my concentration and ending up losing the match.
Había subestimado a mi contrincante por lo que perdí…acabé…
We’re underpricing our product. Infravalorando
I get the impression we’re underusing our resources. Tengo la impresión…infrautilizando…recursos
When I got the meeting I realized I had underdressed for the occasion.
Que me había (iba) vestido inadecuadamente
ADJECTIVES WITH PREFIX “OVER” AND “UNDER”
En numerosas ocasiones empleamos los participios de los verbos que empiezan con los prefijos “over” y “under” cómo adjetivos.
We’re gonna look now at some further examples witch the prefixes “over” and “under” this time when they preside adjectives. When exactly they’re saying with something is overdone, (está hecho más de la cuenta).
Okay. We don’t say “overbooking” as a noun. Okay we talk about something being overbooked.
When we got to the airport, they told us that the flight was overbooked.
El vuelo tenía “overbooking” (el vuela estaba “overbooking”)
The bus was completely overcrowded. Completamente lleno
As the previous owner had left the property two years ago, the garden was completely overgrown. Abandonado
According to many ecologists, the Earth is already overpopulated. Según…
In my opinion, the latest Hollywood blockbuster is severely overrated.
Okay. Let’s look at some now with “under”:
Penny feels she’s seriously underpaid considering the amount of responsibility she has. Cree…muy mal pagada…la cantidad de responsabilidad..
The neighbour’s dog looks really underfed. It’s incredibly skinny. <néiba>
Parece muy famélico. Increiblemente flaco.
The problem with that hotel is that it’s always understaffed during high season.
Sin personal-falto de personal
TO HAVE LUNCH
To have: A coffee - Breakfast – A bear - Lunch - A snack – A cup of tea - Dinner/Supper – Something to eat – A drink.
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY I.
Always (siempre) – Usually (normalmente) – Sometimes (A veces) – Never (nunca) – Often (A menudo) – To go fishing (Ir de pesca) – To go swimming (Ir a nadar) – To go shopping (Ir de compras) – To go skiing (Ir a esquiar) – Once a... (Una vez a...) – Twice a... (Dos veces a...) – Pyjamas (Pijama).
THE YEARS II
Nineteen twenty-three / Fourteen fifty-seven / Nineteen ninety- nine
Nineteen seventy-five / Eighteen sixty-seven / Nineteen eleven /
Nineteen “o” five / Two thousand and four / Two thousand and nine
Fifteen seventy-seven / Eighteen thirty-six / Nineteen seventeen
Nineteen seventy / Nineteen thirteen / Nineteen thirty / Eighteen twelve
Two thousand / Twelve twelve
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY II.
Always (siempre) – Almost always (casi siempre) – Usually (normalmente) – Often (a menudo) – Sometimes (algunas veces) – Hardly ever (casi nunca) – Never (nunca) – Frequently (frecuentemente) – Almost always (casi siempre)
I always go…
I almost always have breakfast at home– We hardly ever go swimming
Seldom <séldam> synonym of “hardly ever”
Nicola usually calls me on Friday. Los viernes
Never, ever, ever; “to” after “to call”
Sheila never asks questions – We often eat out on Saturday (los sábados) – Darren always has lunch at work – Jordan’s sister never smiles – How often do you play tennis? I hardly ever play tennis – How often do you go fishing? I never go fishing – How often do you go shopping? I usually go shopping every week
En ingles las referencias al tiempo se colocan al final de la oración “every week”.
How often do you walk to work? I hadly ever walk to work – How often do you call your mother? I always call you mother on Sunday – How often do you have lunch at home? I never have lunch at home (Nunca almuerzo en casa) – How often do you have dinner at a restaurant? I sometimes have dinner at a restaurant – How often do you play golf? I never play golf.
“AS SOON AS” IN THE FUTURE CONTEXT
Los verbos en contexto de futuro (nuestro subjuntive), después de la expresión “as soon as”, al igual que después de “when” empleamos el present simple con “s” final para la tercera persona.
“As soon as” means “en cuanto o tan pronto cómo”
I’ll let you know as soon as I have some news.
The company will pay the workers as soon as our clients pay us.
I’ll go to the post office as soon as it stops raining. Deje de llover +verb +ing
I’ll wash up as soon as the film is over. Fregaré…acabe la peli
“To be over” es una forma muy utilizada de decir que algo se acaba.
They’ll make dinner as soon as they get home. Prepararán…
She’ll feed the baby as soon as he wakes up. Se despierte
As soon as I get to Washington, I’ll give you a call. Tan pronto llegue…un toque
As soon as the plane lands, I’ll swith on my mobile. Aterrice…encenderé
Will you give me a shout as soon as the program starts?
Will you change your car as soon as it starts giving you problems? +verb +ing
Will you let me know as soon as you know what you want to do?
Will you give a ring as soon as you know the final figure? Cifra final
Dar un toque: A parta de los verbos“to ring”, “to call”, “to phone”.
Will you give me a bell as soon as the baby is born? Nazca
As soon as you decide, will you put it in writing? ¿Lo pondrás por escrito
As soon as the concert is over, can you give me tinkle?
Too lot, too lot, too lot, too lot of different ways use, saying “dame un toque”; “Give me a buzz”, “Give me a ring”, “Give me a tinkle”, “Give me a bell”.
THERE’S NO POINT IN DOING SOMETHING
De nada sirve hacer algo.
There’s no point in complaining
There’s no point in pretending. Fingir
There’s no point in going to the University if you’re not prepared to study hard.
Si no estás dispuesto/preparado a estudiar mucho
There’s no point in driving to work in this snow. Ir en coche…con esta nevada
There’s no point in shouting; nobody can hear you. Nadie te oye
There isn’t any point in + verb +ing. No sirve de nada (hacer algo)
There isn’t any point in getting your hopes up. Hacerte ilusiones
There isn’t any point in taking part; we don’t stand a chance. No sirve de nada participar; no nos queda una posibilidad
There isn’t any point in getting up early tomorrow; the traffic will be awful first thing. A primera hora
“First thing in the morning” or “first thing” A primera hora de la mañana
Is there any point in…? Is it worth? ¿Merece la pena (hacer)…
Is there any point in joining that queue? ¿Ponernos en aquella cola
Is there any point in making an effort?
Is there any point in explaining it to them again?
WHAT’S THE POINT OF DOING SOMETHING
¿De qué sirve hacer algo?
What’s the point of telling them? ¿De qué sirve contárselo?
What’s the point of complaining to me if you don’t complain to your boss?
¿De qué sirve quejarte conmigo…?
What’s the point of helping her when she needs to learn from her mistakes?
“Mistake” se utiliza mucho más que “error” en inglés.
What’s the point of sweeping all the dust on your front doorstep two meters to the left?
¿De qué sirve barrer…que hay en tu puerta…?
What’s the point of voting? ¿De qué sirve votar?
What’s the point of inviting Oliver to the party?
What’s the point of making an effort?
What’s the point of phoning if you never answer?
What’s the point of getting up early if it makes you feel tired later in the day?
¿De qué sirve…si luego te entra sueño?
What’s the point of working if you don’t enjoy it?
¿De qué sirve trabajar si no lo disfrutas?
What’s the point of studying English if you don’t prepared to use it in real life situations?
I WORK WHERE SHE WORKS
To start – To work – To live – To play – To park – To run – To sit – To travel – To shop – To drink.
I start where she starts. I work where she works. I live where she lives. I play where she plays. I drink where she drinks. I travel where she travels. I sit where she sits. I run where she runs. I park where she parks. I shop where she shops. He travels where I travel. He lives where I live. She starts where I start. He sits where I sit. I work where she works. He shops where I shop. He parks where I park. He drinks where I drink. He runs where I run. He plays where I play. I know where he works. I know where she runs. I know where he sits. I know where he plays. I know where she shops. I know where he parks. I know where she lives. I know where she starts. I know where he travels. I know where she drinks. I don’t know where Pedro lives. I don’t know where Paula works. I don’t know where John runs. I don’t know where Susan sits. I don’t know where Richard parks. John knows where Janet shops. Paola knows where Harry starts. John knows where Eric drinks.
Walking (andando) – Running (corriendo) – Raining (lloviendo) – Calling (llamando) – A T-shirt (camiseta) – Trousers (pantalones) – Jumper (jersey) –
A skirt (falda)
TO TRY TO…
To Study (estudiar) – To help (ayudar) – To eat (comer) – To use (usar, utilizar) – To pay attention (poner atención) – To learn (aprender) – To understand (entender) – To improve (mejorar) – To find (encontrar) – To spend (gastar).
Do you try to study every day?
Do you try to help your boss?
Do you try to help your partner in the kitchen?
Do you try to go to the gym regularly? <reguiálaly>
Do you try to pay attention when you listen to the audio?
Do you try to eat healthily? <jélfely>
Do you try to use your time well?
“Well” pertenece al 5% de los adverbios que no se forma añadiendo final “ly” al adjetivo. Su adjetivo sería; good.
Do you try to park near your office?
Do you try to play with your children every day?
Do you try to live in pace with your neighbours?
Are you trying to learn English?
Are you trying to understand me now?
Are you trying to be a good student?
Are you trying to read this sentence?
Are you trying to improve your pronunciation?
Are you trying to find your pen?
Are you trying to spend less money?
Are you trying to open the door?
Are you trying to use this structure correctly?
Are you trying to speak good English?
Cuando hablamos de “Every day” “habitualmente”, utilizamos el presente simple
Do you try to help every day?
Do you try to study every day?
Do you try to have breakfast every day?
Do you try to travel every day?
Cuando hablamos de “Now” “ahora mismo”, utilizamos el presente continuo “tryng to”
Are you trying to understand me?
Are you trying to find it?
Are you trying to improve?
Are you trying to work?
TO TRY +TO vs. TO TRY + VERB+ING (intentar vs. probar)
Nuance (matiz); TO TRY TO (“Intentar” con esfuerzo)
Hebrew it’s too hard. …demasiado difícil
We tried to help them but we couldn’t reach them. Intentamos ayudarles pero no pudimos alcanzarles
I tried to tell you but you wouldn’t listen. Intenté decírtelo pero no me escuchabas
“Would” en este caso implica una fuerte voluntad de hacer o no hacer algo.
Henry tried to convince me but I wasn’t interested. Henry intentó convencerme pero no estaba interesado
I’ve tried to call him all afternoon but he’s not answering his phone. He intentado llamarle toda la tarde, pero no contesta (no está contestando)
I’ll try and help you. Intentaré ayudarte
Sustituimos “to” por “and” con el verbo “try” dentro de un contesto futuro.
I’m gonna try and see what I can do. Voy a intentar ver lo que puedo hacer
TO TRY + VERB +ING (probar o experimentar)
Have you tried using silicon? ¿Has probado a usar silicona?
I’ve tried drinking an infusion before going to bed but it doesn’t seem to work. He probado a tomar una infusión antes de ir a la cama pero parece que no funciona
I’ve tried talking to him about it but he doesn’t want to know. He intentado hablar con él sobre ello pero no quiere saber nada.
Have you tried using a spanner? Has intentado usar una llave inglesa?
I haven’t tried using an interpreter. No he probado a utilizar un intérprete
I tried removing the stain with hairspray. Intenté quitar la mancha con laca
Have you tried using petrol? ¿Has probado usar gasolina?
The fourth of July / July fourth
15/05/2003: The fifteenth of May, two thousand and three.
29/09/1999: The twenty-ninth of September, nineteen ninety-nine
03/10/2001: The third of October, Two thousand and one.
10/01/1995: The tenth of January, nineteen ninety-five.
22/04/1990: The twenty-second of April, nineteen ninety.
05/06/2005: The fifth of June, two thousand and five.
30/08/1982: The thirtieth of August, nineteen eighty-two.
09/11/2004: The ninth of November, two thousand and four.
25/07/1950: twenty-fifth of July, nineteen fifty.
12/17/1978: December seventeenth, nineteen seventy-eight.
01/06/2009: January sixth, two thousand and nine.
08/22/2000: August twenty-second, two thousand.
12/10/1991: December tenth, nineteen ninety-one.
03/14/2007: March fourteenth, two thousand and seven.
10/28/1965: October twenty-eighth, nineteen sixty five.
05/18/2003: May eighteenth, two thousand and three.
11/02/1972: November second, nineteen seventy-two.
04/15/1959: April fifteenth, nineteen fifty-nine.
02/12/2006: February twelfth, two thousand and six
31/07/1992: The thirty-first of July, nineteen ninety-two
08/23/2003: August twenty-third, two thousand and three.
03/14/2000: March fourteenth, two thousand.
27/10/1905: The twenty-seventh of October, nineteen “o” five.
I don’t know what I’m going to do. Lo que voy a hacer
I liked what I ate. Lo que comí
I don’t know what I saw. Lo que vi
He did what he could. Hizo lo que pudo
I didn’t understand what he said.
Did you understand what he said?
I understood most of what he said. La mayor parte…
He said what he wanted to do. Dijo lo que quería hacer
She asked about what she didn’t understand.
Do you what he did after that?
I don’t know what went wrong. Lo que falló
I don’t know what made him change his mind. Lo que le hizo…de opinión
I don’t know what started the argument. Lo que inició la discusión
She told me what it was important.
What you said was true. Lo que dijera era verdad.
What you did was wrong. Estuvo mal (desde un punto de vista moral)
What they suggested was not a good idea.
What she wrote was anti-constitutional
EVERYTHING vs. AS MUCH AS (todo lo que…)
I did everything you ask me to do.
I bought everything I wanted.
I misinterpreted everything she said.
Everything they did was challenging.
Un reto en inglés es “a challenge” y su adjetivo es “challenging” (cuado algo supone un reto).
Everything he said was an offensive.
Everything that company does is groundbreaking. No puede emplearse para referirse a personas. “Todo lo que esa empresa hace es innovador”
“Innovated” means “innovado” - “Innovative” means “innovador”
Everything he said was untrue.
AS MUCH AS; No puede ir al principio de la frase
I studied as much as I could.
He helped as much as he could.
They said as much as they could.
He donated as much as he could.
He donated as much as he could afford.
“to be able to afford” sería “permitirse el lujo de” en términos económicos.
I did as much as I could.
WHERE TO GO, WHAT TO DO AND HOW TO DO IT
I don’t know what to do
I don’t know who to ask
I don’t know where to go
He told me what to do
He showed me how to do it. Me enseñó…
They told me when to be there. Me dijeron cuando estár
She explained to me how to do it. Me explicó…
“To” goes always after “explain”, like “speak to”
I asked her what to do. Le pregunté que…
I don’t know how to solve it. Como resolverlo
La palabra “solution” no existe cómo verbo en ingles sino sólo como sustantivo. Su equivalente es “to solve”
Do you know where to go?
Can you tell me what to do?
Do you know how to do it?
Do you know how to make spaghetti bolognaise?
Plural italiano <ssspaguéti> seguido del adjetivo francés, mal pronunciado <bolonéis>
Does she know whom to ask?
AS LONG AS IN FUTURE CONTEXT (siempre que...).
Siempre que; siempre y cuando; en tanto y cuando.
La estructura de la oración será la misma que el primer condicional.
“As long as” + present simple + el contexto de futuro con “will”
As long as you tell me. I won’t mind. Siempre que me lo digas, no me importará.
As long as you pay by the 18th, you’ll be entitled to a 10% discount. Siempre que pagues antes del día 18, tendrás derecho a un descuento del 10%.
As long as everyone agrees, I’ll chair the meeting. Siempre que todo el mundo esté de acuerdo yo presidiré la reunión.
Siempre que todo el mundo esté de acuerdo, yo presidiré la reunión
As long as you support me, I’ll do whatever you want. Siempre que me apoyes..
As long as the company meets its targets, the boss will be happy.
Siempre y cuando la empresa logre sus objetivos…
Alcanzar tus objetivos: To reach your goals; to meet your targets; to attain your objectives.
As long as there are no errors, we can go to print tomorrow. Siempre y cuando no haya…podemos mandarlo a la imprenta.
También podemos emplear “can” en contexto de futuro
They’ll pay off their debts as long as there isn’t a recession in the next few years. Pagarán…siempre que no haya…los próximos años
Más natural utilizar “to pay off” que “to pay”. I’m paying off my mortgage
The company will meet the costs, as long as your fill out the expense form correctly. Asumirá los costes, siempre que rellenes el informe (formulario) de gastos…
The photographer will bring a video camera, as long as you specifically ask him to.
El 99% de los casos “as long as” significa “siempre que” y no “tan largo como”.
As long as means also:
Tanto tiempo como; it doesn’t last as long as you think
Cuanto; you can look for it as long as you like
I’ll drink the tea, as long as you have some first. Siempre que lo tomes primero
The Police won’t catch the criminal, as long as he remains in hiding. Siempre que se mantenga oculto
As long as you study for twenty minutes every day, your English will improve.
He’ll contribute as long as he doesn’t have to take part.
Es más común decir “to take part” que “participate” en inglés.
I’ll sell it as long as you pay in cash. Lo venderé siempre y cuando pagues…
“To pay in cash” o “to pay cash in hand”.
PROVIDED (THAT) IN FUTURE CONTEXT
Es la manera formal de decir “as long as”; siempre que.
La estructura de la oración será la misma que la del primer condicional;
“Provided” + present simple in future context + “Will”
Provided they don’t mind, we’ll finish the meeting early tonight.
Provided the committee agrees, we’ll order the materials right way.
Provided the stock market performs well, we should make a lot of money.
Siempre que la bolsa vaya bien, deberíamos ganar…
It should be a nice surprise provided nobody finds out. …nadie se entere
You won’t regret it provided you’re willing to go without certain luxuries.
No te arrepentirás siempre y cuando estés dispuesto a prescindir de ciertos lujos.
Providing you wear a fancy dress, you won’t have any trouble to getting in. …lleves puesto un disfraz…para entrar
Providing it doesn’t rain, I’ll wait for you outside the theatre.
We’ll plant some more lavender providing the bushes you planted last year survive the winter.
Lavender <lávinda> lavanda
You should have no problems at customs providing you dress normally. …vistas de manera normal
They’ll probably go to Japan for a month providing they pass their exams.
Nunca empezamos una frase con “probably”