Both (Both of 2; ambos de 2) –Neither (Neither one nor the other; ni el uno ni el otro) –None (None of 3 or more; ninguno de 3 ó más) –All (todos).


Both of us are Spanish. Nosotros dos…

Both of them. Ellos dos – Both of you. Vosotros dos


We are both. Nosotros dos

They are both. Ellos dos.

La forma más común; both of us, both of them, both of you.


Neither of us are Bulgarian. Ninguno de los dos somos búlgaros.

All of us are Spanish. Todos somos españoles.

All of them are Spanish. Todos son españoles.

None of us are Bulgarian. Ninguno somos búlgaros.


Los dos somos: Both of us, both of them

Neither of us, neither of them (ninguno de los 2 son)

Los 3 somos: All of us. All of them (los 3 son).

Ninguno de 3 o más; Neither of us are or neither of them are.

Podemos utilizar en el caso de “Neither of us” y “None of us” tanto el singular del verbo como el plural.

Both of them have a house in Spain. Los dos tienen casa en España.

Neither of us have a house in Spain. Ninguno de los dos tenemos casa en España.

None of us have house in Spain. Ninguno tenemos casa en España.

Who speaks perfect English?  None of them speak perfect English.

Who is Russian? Neither of them are Russian.

Who sings well? All of them sing well.

Who lives in a tree? None of them live in a tree.

Who understands Swedish? Neither of us understand Swedish.

Who loves the English language? Both of us love the English language.

Who is enjoying this class? Both of us are enjoying this class.




I can tell you’re not studying enough! Se nota que no estás…

The expression “I can tell” means “se nota que”

I can tell you’re tired.

I can tell you’re really excited.


I can tell you’re not very convinced. Se nota que no estás…

I could tell you didn’t want to be there. Se notaba que no querías…

I can always tell when you’re lying. Siempre se nota cuando estás mintiendo

I can tell you can’t stand the idea. Se nota que no tragas (soportas) …

I can tell he’s worrying about something. Se nota que está preocupado…

También se puede decir “I can tell he’s worried…”

SABER; cómo percepción

How can you tell? ¿Cómo lo sabes?

It’s difficult to tell. Es difícil saberlo

I can tell it’s not going to work! Sé que no va a funcionar!

You can never tell when he’s telling the truth. Nunca se sabe cuando…

I can’t to tell whether or not he likes your proposal. No sé si…o no.

I can’t to tell what he wants to do. No sé lo que quiere hacer

You can never tell with people like that. Nunca se sabe con gente así

En el infinitivo es más común decir “to tell” que “to be able to tell”



When we use “important”, we’d talking about something that is on important (algo que tiene importancia, es decir no estamos hablando de la cantidad. Entonces para decir “una cantidad importante de…” decimos “a considerable amount or a large amount).

I spend a considerable amount of money on taxi. Gasto una cantidad importante de dinero en taxis.

There were a considerable amount of people at the demonstration

I owe the bank a considerable amount of money for my house.

Lo más corriente es traducir “cantidad” por “amount” y no por “quantity”


You’ll have to save up a considerable amount if you want to buy a flat in the capital.



This is a really important expression “y significa; equivocarse de algo”. For example; I got the wrong road, or the wrong street. I got the wrong number. We can use this expressions also with others verbs; I bought the wrong type of rice. We can use a lot of, a lot of verbs. So we look at a few examples then, starting with the following:


Sorry, I got the wrong number again!

You’re always getting the wrong number.

I got the wrong day for my own wedding!

Sorry, you’ve got the wrong person.

They went to the wrong place.

Sorry, you’ve come to the wrong office. Te has equivocado de…

Sorry, I think I said the wrong thing. Dije algo no apropiado

I used the wrong type of vinegar in the salad.

I keep getting the wrong key! No paro de equivocarme de llave!

I spoke to the wrong person.

I took the wrong train.

I picked up the wrong bag.

I was waiting at the wrong place.

The chemist gave me the wrong medicine.

Sorry, you’ve brought me the wrong wine.

I wrote the wrong address on the envelope.

Sorry, I think you’ve given me the wrong change.

You’ve bought the wrong bleach again!

I went to the wrong supermarket.



I’m okay, a little bit on edge: cómo algo nervioso

Whay? Because we’re going to look at something which is extremely complex, another worry because if you haven't got to grips with the basic three conditionals, I would strongly advise you to skip this track.

Let’s go then an over review, (hagamos un repaso más): First IN THE FUTURE AND ITS CONSEQUENSE IN THE FUTURE.

If it rains tomorrow I will take my umbrella.



If it rained every day, I would always take my umbrella



If it had rained yesterday, I would have taken my umbrella.

But today we’re going to look at, something which it’s a little more complex and I said we’re gonna look at mixed conditional.


If I knew her, I would have invited her to the party. Si la conociera (ahora)…

If I had more experience, I would have got the job. Si tuviera (ahora)…

If I spoke fluent English, they would have promoted last year or in passive voice:

If I spoke fluent English, I would have been promoted last year. Si hablara (ahora) inglés fluido, me habrían ascendido el año pasado.


If my car were a four by four, it wouldn’t have got stuck in the mud. Si mi coche fuera un 4x4, no se hubiera atascado en el barro.


If the weather were good in England, I wouldn’t have come to live in Spain.

If cigarette weren’t so expensive, I wouldn’t have given up smoking.

If I had more free time, I would have gone to the wedding. Si tuviera…

Would you have jumped if you were twenty years younger? ¿Habrías saltado si tuvieras 30 años menos?

If I were a politician I wouldn’t have said that. Si fuese un politico…


Now let’s look at the same thing but the other way round that’s to say; A CONDITION IN THE PAST AND ITS CONSEQUENCE IN THE PRESENT. So; what do we do? We simply take the structure from the condition of the past conditional, “if I had known, if I had gone, if I had seen” and its consequence or result close from the present conditional “I wouldn’t do, I wouldn’t go, I wouldn’t be” for example:


If I had been born in Poland, I would speak fluent Polish. Si hubiese nacido…

If you had cleaned your shoes with polish last night, you would look more formal. Si hubieses limpiado…abrillantador <polish>…parecerías…


I wouldn’t smoke today if I had been operated on a month ago.

No fumaría…si hubiese sido operado hace un mes (condicional en pasado)

To be operated on: Ser operado


I would try to stay calm if I had been bitten by a snake. Intentaría manterner la calma si fuese mordido por…


If Napoleon hadn’t escaped from the isle of Elba, the Duke of Wellington wouldn’t be so famous nowadays.

If my ex-boss hadn’t joined the company I wouldn’t be Managing Director today. Si mi exjefe no hubiese entrado en la empresa, yo no sería director general hoy.




In English when we’re talking about abstract nouns, abstract concepts, we don’t use the article. We don’t say “the peace”, “the justice”. We say simply “peace” and “justice”, for example:


Is long-term peace really viable in the Middle East? ¿Es factible una paz duradera en Oriente Medio?

Pride is his worst enemy. El orgullo…

War is something most people in the western world haven’t experienced. La guerra es algo que la mayoría de la gente no ha vivido en Occidente.

There is a fine line between failure and success.


Now, when we find these same concepts in specific context, for example when we’re talking about “la paz que hay en el desierto”, “the peace you can find in the desert” then we use the article “the”, but only when we being absolutely specific about this concept.


I love the peace you find up in the mountains. Me encanta la paz que encuentras en las…

The war in the Balkans was the last conflict fought on European soil….en suelo…

The success of the film was undeniable….innegable

The power she has is frightening….es atemorizador

The love I feel for you is burning me up….me está consumiendo

It’s easier to control anger than embarrassment….la ira que la vergüenza

Thirst is worse than hunger. La sed es peor que el hambre



In English there are two different verbs, that we use to express the idea “conseguir”, and is very simply to establish when we use one and when we use the other; to get something and to manage to do something.

Let’s start then with the verb TO GET

He got the last two tickets left. Consiguió…que quedaban

Get the latest hits on this great compilation album! <compeleison>

They got a massive discount in the end. Consiguieron…enorme. <massííf>

Did she get what she asked for? ¿Consiguió lo que pedía?

Did they get the books they were looking for? Or;

Did they get the books they were after?

TO BE AFTER SOMETHING is to be looking for.

Let’s change now then, and look at the verb TO MANAGE

She manages to see her parents once a fortnight….una vez por quincena.

I managed to finish the report in time for the meeting. <manichit> a tiempo

We managed to talk to the person in charge of the project.

After searching for three hours I managed to find the car keys.

Did you manage to speak to the lawyers? Te las arreglaste…abogados?

Did they manage to find a new flat in that area?...en esa zona? <ééria>

Did you manage to finish the accounts last week? ¿Terminaste la contabilidad…?

Did you manage to repair your watch in the end?



¿Cuál es la regla de oro? Nunca decimos “to” después de “can”

Can you speak German? No, I can’t. -Can Peter Pan fly? Yes, he can. –Can you play the guitar? –Can you son speak Greek? No, he can. –Can you drive? Yes, I can. –Can I speak Spanish? –Can you ride a horse? No, I can. –Can you ride a bicycle? Yes, I can. –Can your parents speak Russian? No, they can. –Can your sister read? –I can speak Spanish but I can’t speak Portuguese. -I can walk but I can’t run. -I can cook but I can’t drive. –I can play the piano but I can’t play the violin.




Can you go? Can you walk? Can you come?

Is it possible to bring some water to class? Can I bring some water to class?

Is it possible to make a phone call? Can I make a phone call?

Is it possible to have some more wine, please? Can I have some more wine…?

Is it possible to talk to you? Can I talk to you?

Is it possible to drive your daughter? Can you daughter drive?

Is it possible to be your friend? Can I be your friend?

Is it possible to count Janet? Can Janet come to?

Is it possible to smoke here? Can they smoke here?

Is it possible to ride a horse? Can he ride a horse?

Is it possible to run ten thousand kilometers? Can I run ten thousand kilometers?



NO CONFUNDIR “TO LEAVE” INTRANSITIVO (sin complemento) que significa “SALIR” con “TO LEAVE” TRANSITIVO que significa “DEJAR” en sentido abandonar sinónimo “TO LET”


How is it going? I’m full of beans.

Today we’re going to look at two different verbs that we use for when you in Spanish use the verb “permitir” okay? On the one hand we have the verb “to let” and on the other the verb “to allow”. What’s the difference between these two verbs? Basically the difference is the one take the full infinitive and the other just takes the basic verb, okay? For example we say; let me do something but allow me to do something, okay. Be carefully because the typical mistake the Spaniards make when they use the verb “let” is; “let me to do it, let me to finish” which sounds awful.

Okay I’m gonna give you some much sentences now in Spanish and I want you to translate them firstly using the verb let and then using the verb allow. For example:


He let me go / He allowed me to go. Me permitió que me fuera.

No cantes victoria! In English we say; don’t count your chickens!


They let me go in without paying

They allowed me to go in without paying.

Me permitieron entrar sin pagar. (WITHOUT + VERB + ING)


The Council didn’t let anyone build on that plot of land

The council didn’t to allow anyone to build on that plot of land (en esa parcela).

The Council; Ayuntamiento como organización administrativa.

The City hall or The City town (el Ayuntamiento cómo edificio).


I won’t let you leave the room until you finish

I won’t allow you to leave the room until you finish. No te dejaré salir de la sala hasta que finalices.


My neighbour didn’t let me use his lawnmower.

My neighbour didn’t allow me to use his lawnmower (cortacésped)


Let’s just what, you would looking forward to. I know that. Okay?

Vamos exactamente a lo que tú estarías deseando. Lo sé.


Will you let me bring my dog with me?

Will you allow me to bring my dog with me? …que traiga….

Did they let him pay in cash? / Did they allow him to pay in cash?

Does your teacher normally let you be late for class? …llegar tarde a clase?

Does your teacher normally allow you to be late for class?

Preguntas en las que estamos buscando el sujeto del verbo por lo que no hace falta emplear  modales como “do/does/did”.

El verbo se expresa siempre en tercera persona del singular con “s” final para el presente.


Who lets you say such things?

Who allows you to say such things? ¿Quién te permite decir semejantes cosas?

SI “LET” NO LLEVA “S” final, es un claro indicativo de que ESTÁ EN PASADO.


Who let Peter organise the company party?

 Who allowed Peter to organise…?

Let me change the subject. Allow me to change the subject….que cambie de tema



Many Spaniards get confuse between the use “alone” and “lonely”. Alone means “solo; sin otros”, for example; Lee lives alone. Lonely on the other hand means “solo de soledad”.

Lonely: Significa “solo” de soledad. Suele acompañar al verbo “to feel”.


My great uncle lives alone. Mi tío abuelo vive solo

I’d rather be alone if you don’t mind. Preferiría estar solo si no te importa.

I was completely alone in the library. Or:

I was all alone in the library. Estuve completamente solo…


“To win something” and “to beat someone”

He alone is capable of beating the champion. Solo él es capaz de ganar…

Leave your brother alone. Déja a tu hermano en paz

I’ve never felt so lonely in my entire life. Nunca me he sentido tan solo en…

Let’s turn our attention now to THE WORD LONELY which means; “solo” en el sentido de soledad.


When her children flew the nest she felt very lonely. Cuando sus hijos abandonaron el nido se sintió muy sola.

In English when you leave home when you go to the university, when you leave home for example to get a job, we say to fly the nest, not to abandon the nest.


I felt a bit lonely when you were away. Me sentía un poco solo…estabas fuera.

When all my friends and family about; I never feel lonely.

Sometimes she feels lonely now that she no longer works. A veces se siente sola ahora que ya no trabaja.


Okay. Let’s look now, two more expressions that also means “solo”. ON YOUR OWN “cuando haces algo por tu cuenta, sin ayuda” y decimos; on your own, on my own, on his own, on her own, siempre con el adj. possessive.   


Johnny wrote his speech on his own….escibió sus discurso solo

If there’s any chance. I’d rather do it on my own. Si hay posibilidad, preferiría…

Did you do it on your own? ¿Lo hiciste solo?

They built the house on their own. Construyeron la casa ellos solos.

We sorted it out on our own. Nos las arreglamos nosotros mismos.


Let’s go with the other expression which is; to do something BY YOURSELF. (pronoun reflexive; by myself, by yourself, by himself, by herself, by myself, by themselves, by ourselves, by yourselves, by themselves).

Significa “solo” de hacer algo sin ayuda.


Did they work it out by themselves? ¿Lo averiguaron solos?  

Can’t you do it by yourself? ¿No lo puedes hacer tú solo?

I’d rather you finished it by yourself. Preferiría que lo terminaes solo.

We’re finding it hard to do this by ourselves. Hacer esto solos nos está resultando difícil.

He thwarted the hold-up by himself. Impidió el atraco él solo.

He prevented the robbery by himself.



Today we’re going to look at a particular use of the word or the proposition “before” when I do something for example before doing something else.

I locked the front door before leaving home” (cerré la puerta principal antes de salir de casa).

For example:

I took my shoes off before entering the mosque…de entrar en la mezquita

I dug a hole before planting the seed.

He always shaves before having a shower….se afeíta antes de ducharse

I read the contract before signing. Leí el contrato antes de firmarlo 

I switched the light off before going to sleep. Apagué la luz antes de irme a dormir

To fall asleep; dormirse en situaciones inapropiadas.

To go to asleep; ir a la cama


Now, the same change happens when we use “after”. Okay, this no change the subject; I did something after doing something else. For example:

I went for a walk after reading the Sunday papers.

I had a nap after checking in at the hotel. Me eché una siesta después de llegar…

A kip, a nap; significan lo mismo

I had a few beers with my colleagues after finishing work. Tomamos unas pocas …con mis compañeros después de salir del trabajo.

Your colleagues are your work mates. No son colegas, son compañeros. No decimos “companions”. Para hablar de colegas utilizamos “mates”  

After watching the film I went to bed. Tras ver…

After spending all his pocket money, he asked her mother for more. Tras gastar todo su dinero, le pidió más a su madre 


Let’s move now to another proposition; whilst. And again, when this no change the subject, if you do something whilst doing something else.

I saw the accident happen whilst driving close to Valencia. Vi cómo ocurrió el accidente miestras conducía cerca de Valencia

I explained the situation to my wife whilst shaving.

Siempre decimos; to explain something to someone

I cut my hand whilst trying to open a tin of tomatoes. Me corté la mano mientras intentaba abrir una lata de tomates

Tomatoes or tomatoes.


Okay. Let’s look at another example of the use of the gerund and it is the expression;


This is the equivalent expression of; al ocurrir algo o al hacer algo.

Al darme cuenta por ejemplo sería; ON RELEASING.

ON DOING SOMETHING; traducimos “Al” por “On” y, lo que es menos común por “Upon”. Seguidos del gerundio


On seeing their reaction, we decided to make a quick exit. Al ver su reacción decidimos salir pitando

To make a quick exit; is a set phrases which means; salir pitando cuando has metido la pata; when you’ve put your foot in it. To make a quick exit!


On arriving at the hotel, we were told that there was a problem with our booking.  Al llegar al hotel, nos dijeron que había un problema con nuestra reserva.

Cuando decimos “nos dijeron, se nos dijo” sin identificar el sujeto del verbo solemos utilizar la voz pasiva; we were told.


On reaching the summit, they planted the Union Jack. Al alcanzar la cumber, plantaron la bandera británica.

But the way! The Union Jack is the way that we prefer to The British Flag, okay? And it’s identically. Americans prefer to them “National flag” as “The Stars and Stripes”


PRIOR TO DOING; suena más formal que “before doing” y es bastante utilizada aunque menos común.


Now, just before we finish this section, I want to refer to an old determinate way of saying “before doing something” and that is “prior to doing something”. Okay; I did this prior to doing that. It’s quite formal expression but nevertheless it’s one that's used relatively frequently.

You must hand in your keys to reception prior to leaving the hotel. Debes entregar las llaves en recepción antes de dejar el hotel


Prior to making a decision, you should research all the possibilities. Antes de tomar una decisión, deberías investigar todas las posibilidades



Everybody learnt that “until” means “hasta”, what it’s absolutely right, but “hasta” is not always to be translated as “until”, okay. Sometimes we need to say “up to”.

Let’s focus on “until” first table.


UNTIL means “HASTA”, hasta un punto en el tiempo; until Friday, until next week, until 2020, etc, etc…And then in a minute we’ll look at “up to”. For example:


You’ve got until next Friday to finish the project. Tienes hasta…

I won’t go until you arrive. No me iré hasta que no llegues

En un context future el verbo que sigue a “until” se expresa en presente simple.

This is again a point in the future.

He will stay there until he dies. Se quedará allí hasta que se muera

I won’t know until the results are published. <páablisht> No lo sabré hasta que se publiquen los resultados (los resultados sean publicados).


Let’s look now “UP TO”. “Up to” is the way we translate “hasta” when in Spanish you say; hasta un punto físico, also when we talking about a period time. For example; he had to wait up to, ten minutes.


Sometimes I have to wait for up to, 30 minutes….hasta 30…

He climbed up to the summit without oxygen. Alcanzó (llegó hasta) la cumbre sin oxigeno

<sáamit> bajando la mandíbula y enfatizando la primera sílaba


We had to resend the document up to 20 times….que reeviar…hasta 20 veces

You have up to six months to improve your English. Tienes hasta 6 meses…

I was up to my knees in water. El agua me llegaba a las rodillas.

I was up to my eyeballs in debt. Las deudas me llegaban hasta el cuello. (globos oculares).



Ligeramente y considerablemente - Un poco y bastante”.



Okay. Let’s look at some of these adverbs then and hopefully by the end of this exercise, you'll start to use this type of adverb on an irregular basis.


SLIGHTLY means; ligeramente. I feel slightly better. This adverb is use very often in construction with comparatives. Delante del comparativo; slightly better, slightly bigger, slightly older… Okay?


The blue jug holds slightly more water than the white one. En la jarra azul cabe ligeramente más agua que en la blanca (la jarra azul admite ligeramente…)


The Spanish side

CONSIDERABLY; consideradamente.

These designer sunglasses cost considerably more than those own-brand ones.

Esas gafas de diseño…considerablemente más que…de marca blanca

This exercise is considerably harder than I thought….más difícil de lo que pensé

The project took considerably longer than I expected….tardó…más tiempo de lo previsto.

Okay, let’s move now to “AT BIT”. We look at the different between “a bit” and “quite a bite”. They look very similar but the different is considerably. If we say; I’m a bit stronger than I use to be. Significa un poco sólo. Si digo; I’m quite a bit stronger than I use to be. Significa bastante más fuerte.

Con “A BIT”

I’m a bit happier now I know the truth….un poco más contento…

She’s a bit sharper than I am. Es un poco más astuto que yo

That company is a bit more profitable than mine. Esa empresa es un poco más rentable que la mía.


I feel a bit warmer now (that) you’ve lit the fire. Me siento un poco más calentito ahora que has encendido la chimenea


I’m quite a bit fatter than I was, when I last saw you. Estoy bastante más gordo de lo que estaba cuando te vi la última vez.


Dan’s quite a bit funnier than his boss is.

The reservoir is quite a bit fuller than it was this time last year. El pantano está bastante más lleno de lo que estaba la vez del año pasado.


It’s quite a bit further than you think. Está bastante más lejos de lo que crees.




Al igual que “can”, nunca decimos “to” después de “will”. Cómo sustantivo significa “voluntad”


Will you go? Yes, I will. –Will you see him? No, I won’t. -Will it is snow? No, it won’t. Will I laugh? Yes, you will. Will she call? No, she won’t. Will you walk? Yes, I will. Will they work? Yes they will.


I’ll go. You’ll go. He’ll go. I won’t go, you won’t go.

I won’t have breakfast tomorrow.

He’ll carry it. I won’t call you. She won’t talk to you.

He’ll come tomorrow. Will he come tomorrow?

They’ll like it. You’ll have a beer. Will you have a beer?

You’ll sit next to him. Will you right the report?

It’ll snow on Monday. He’ll close the door. Will he close the door?

I’ll see you tomorrow. Will I see you tomorrow?

He’ll tell her parents. They’ll go on Wednesday. Will they go on Wednesday?

Will you study tonight? Will your boss call me?

Will your feet hurt? Will you smoke at the party?

Will he play with us? Will it rain tomorrow? Will she drink tonight?

I’ll read this book. They’ll see the flat. They won’t eat. They won’t to buy it.

I’ll buy it. Will she smile? Will you leave soon?




What are you doing tomorrow morning? ¿Qué haces mañana por la mañana?

When are you going to the clinic? ¿Cuándo vas a la clínica?

Por supuesto no podríamos decir; when do you go?

I’m going to Barcelona tomorrow. Voy mañana a Barcelona.

They’re bringing the results tomorrow. Mañana traen los resultados.

I’m taking my wife to the doctor tomorrow. Mañana llevo…al doctor

Are you going to Barcelona tomorrow? ¿Vas mañana a Barcelona?

What are you doing this evening? ¿Qué haces esta noche?

I’m driving to France next week. Voy en coche a Francia la semana que viene

I’m flying to London next month. Voy en avión a Londres el mes que viene

I’m staying at the Palace Hotel next week. Me alojo en…

Are you leaving tomorrow? ¿Te marchas mañana?

Nancy is arriving tomorrow….viene mañana.

She’s going to Italy on Sunday. Va a Italia el domingo

We’re leaving tomorrow. Nos marchamos mañana.

I’m bringing a friend tonight. Traigo un amigo esta noche.

I’m taking my wife to a concert tonight. Llevo a mi mujer a un concierto esta noche

To carry; llevar en sentido físico. Mientras que “to take” es lo contrario de “to bring”.

Are you parents flying to Madrid?

Barry isn’t taking his girlfriend to the party tonight….no trae su novia a la…

Is John bringing wine to the meal tonight? ¿Trae vino J. a la cena…?

I’m not going tonight. No voy esta noche.